Government transfer payments comprise a sizeable share of personal income for both nonmetro and metro communities. Transfer payments to individuals accounted for 23.9 percent of total nonmetro personal income and 15.7 percent of metro personal income in 2012. Of the $2.3 trillion in Federal, State, and local government personal transfer payments to individuals in 2012, $391 billion went to nonmetro residents and $1.9 trillion went to metro residents. Per capita, in 2012 nonmetro residents received more government transfers ($8,460) than metro residents ($7,110).
Unemployment insurance compensation and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly the Food Stamp Program) payments increased sharply with the beginning of the 2007/09 recession. Transfer payments in these categories had the largest increases during the recession and recovery period. Nonmetro unemployment insurance compensation payments increased by 157.8 percent and SNAP rose by 93.2 percent between 2007 and 2011. Between 2011 and 2012, however, nonmetro unemployment compensation fell by 25.5 percent, while SNAP benefit payments continued to increase by 3.5 percent. Unemployment insurance compensation declined because of lower unemployment rates and the elimination of long term unemployment benefits. SNAP expenditures continued to increase during this period, but may begin to fall in future years as cuts specified in the Agricultural Act of 2014 take effect.
Since 1979, nonmetro per capita transfer payments have risen faster than payments in metro areas. Most of this increase comes from the rising cost of government programs that provide medical benefits, such as Medicare and Medicaid. Because nonmetro areas have an older population and a higher proportion of persons with disabilities than metro areas, nonmetro areas receive more transfer payments for retirement and medical costs.
Medical benefits are the single largest transfer payment category in both nonmetro and metro areas. In 1979, medical benefits accounted for 20.6 percent of all nonmetro transfer payments (the second largest category) and by 2012 these had risen to 44.0 percent (the largest category) of all nonmetro transfer payments. Similarly, in metro areas, medical benefits increased from 24.6 percent of all transfer payments in 1979 to 43.9 percent of payments in 2012. Overall, between 1979 and 2012, nonmetro transfer payments for medical benefits increased 547.8 percent, compared with 489.4 percent in metro areas. Some of the increase in transfer payments for medical benefits can be attributed to legislation expanding health insurance to children in working families through Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP). However, the rising cost of health care, which has far outpaced the overall rate of inflation, is a major source of this increase. See the ERS report Health Status and Health Care Access for the Rural and Farm Population (EIB-57, August 2009) for more information.
Transfer payments for retirement and disability insurance are also increasing, but in contrast to medical benefits, have been declining as a proportion of total transfer payments. In 1979, nonmetro retirement and disability payments accounted for 54.5 percent of total transfers; by 2012, this percentage had fallen to 36.7 percent. Nonmetro retirement and disability transfer payments increased by 103.8 percent over this period. Metro retirement and disability payments fell from 54.5 percent of transfers to individuals in 1979 to 36.7 percent in 2012, but increased by 139.4 percent over this period. Barring changes in program eligibility and support, per capita transfer payments in rural America are likely to increase as a result of the gradual aging in place of the rural population. For more information see the Population and Migration Topic Page.
The counties with the highest percentage of total income from government transfer payments in 2012 were concentrated in Appalachia and the Mississippi Delta. The top three nonmetro counties with the highest percentage of total income from government transfer payments were located in eastern coal fields of Kentucky (Owsley County with 52.1 percent, Wolfe County with 51.6 percent, and McCreary County with 49.9 percent). These counties have high levels of disability payments, along with very high unemployment and poverty rates. Between 2006 and 2012, the largest percentage point increases in transfer payments as a percent of total personal income were in Ontonagon County Michigan (10.7 points to 41.9 percent), Madison County Arkansas (9.9 points to 31.7 percent), and Storey County Nevada (9.9 points to 19.7 percent). In contrast, the counties with the largest percentage point declines were in North Dakota - Mountrail County (-15.1 points to 8.0 percent), Wells County (-14.4 points to 12.9 percent), and Emmons County (-13.6 points to 15.3 percent).