WRS: International Agriculture and Trade Outlook Catalog
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WRS-15-01, February 02, 2015
This report examines the integration of North America’s agricultural and food markets as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), implemented in 1994. NAFTA has had a profound effect on many aspects of North American agriculture over the past two decades.
WRS-1201, May 22, 2012
U.S. agriculture was better positioned than most United States industries entering the recession, was less affected by the recession than most other industries, and is well positioned to continue to do well as the economy recovers.
WRS-1103, June 28, 2011
The report describes the factors that have contributed to the large and rapid increase in agricultural prices during the past year. The report focuses particularly on food commodity prices—which have risen 60 percent since June 2010.
WRS-1102, May 12, 2011
This report discusses Eurozone sovereign debt problems that began in 2010 and their potential consequences for the European Union (EU) and U.S. agriculture.
WRS-1101, March 31, 2011
This report is the last in USDA’s series of Congressionally mandated biennial reports on the impacts of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on U.S. agriculture and the rural economy. The report responds to a mandate in the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act of 1993.
WRS-10-01, May 17, 2010
This report evaluates the impact of Indonesia’s transition from a food-first focus to an export-oriented development strategy on its agricultural production, productivity growth, consumer food demand, and lifestyle. Shifting production and consumption patterns have led to improving agricultural trad...
WRS-09-05, August 20, 2009
The global economic crisis that started in late 2008 has led to a sharp curtailment of international trade, including a short-term decline in the value of global agricultural trade of around 20 percent. After slowing, global agricultural trade will continue to grow in the future. The crisis is leadi...
WRS-0904, May 15, 2009
During the 2000s, Russian agricultural imports have grown considerably, from $7 billion in 2000 to $33 billion in 2008. This import growth has made Russia the second largest agricultural importer among emerging markets, after China. The main reasons for the import rise are macroeconomic—high growth ...
WRS-09-03, March 31, 2009
Implementation of the agricultural provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has drawn to a close. In 2008, the last of NAFTA’s transitional restrictions governing U.S.-Mexico and Canada-Mexico agricultural trade were removed, concluding a 14-year project in which the member coun...
WRS--09-02, March 30, 2009
The world economic crisis that began in 2008 has major consequences for U.S. agriculture. The weakening of global demand because of emerging recessions and declining economic growth result in reduced export demand and lower agricultural commodity prices, compared with those in 2008. These, in turn, ...
WRS-0901, January 01, 2009
Colombia's sugarcane-based ethanol industry, after operating for only 3 years, is the second most developed in the Western Hemisphere. Most Colombian ethanol plants are energy self-sufficient and even generate surplus power that is sold to the national electric grid. Colombia's sugarcane-based ethan...
WRS-0801, July 23, 2008
World market prices for major food commodities such as grains and vegetable oils have risen sharply to historic highs of more than 60 percent above levels just 2 years ago. Many factors have contributed to the runup in food commodity prices. Some factors reflect trends of slower growth in production...
WRS-0703, August 22, 2007
U.S. exports of soybeans and cotton to China have boomed in recent years, but the undervalued exchange rate for the Chinese yuan keeps prices of most other U.S. food and agricultural products more expensive than Chinese products. On average, Chinese retail food prices are about a fourth of U.S. pric...
WRS-0702, August 06, 2007
The volatile and upward trend in U.S. natural gas prices from 2000-06 has led to a 17-percent decline in the Nation’s annual aggregate supply of ammonia. During the period, U.S. ammonia production declined 44 percent, while U.S. ammonia imports increased 115 percent. Also, the share of U.S.-produced...
WRS-0701, March 29, 2007
Implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is drawing to a close. In 2008, the last of NAFTA’s transitional restrictions governing U.S.-Mexico and Canada-Mexico agricultural trade will be removed, concluding a 14-year project in which the member countries systematically disman...
WRS-0602, September 15, 2006
Canada has become the United States’ most important trading partner. Canada is a large exporter to the United States of critical raw materials—including natural gas, petroleum, and wood products—and a substantial importer of finished industrial and consumer goods. Canada’s agricultural trade continu...
WRS-0601, January 11, 2006
China has substantially boosted lending to farmers and agribusinesses in recent years. The balance of loans to farmers doubled between 2001 and 2005. Loans for agribusinesses and rural infrastructure rose as well. Rural credit cooperatives and banks that lend to agriculture are being reformed and co...
WRS-0505, August 12, 2005
Organic farmland and sales are rapidly growing worldwide, and the two largest markets are in the European Union (EU) and the United States. The two regions have adopted different policy approaches to organic agriculture. Many EU countries have "green payments" available for transitioning and continu...
WRS-0504, May 06, 2005
China's agricultural imports more than doubled between 2002 and 2004 due to surging demand for basic commodities, a more open trade regime, and tighter commodity supplies in the Chinese domestic market. U.S. agricultural exports to China jumped to a record $5.5 billion in 2004 due to dramatic growth...
WRS-0503, April 15, 2005
Countercyclical assistance is the common thread among recent agricultural policy innovations of the United States, Mexico, and Canada. In other areas, the three countries are pursuing distinct agricultural policies, reflecting differing national objectives and economic contexts.
WRS-0502, February 22, 2005
In the 11 years since implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the agricultural sectors of Canada, Mexico, and the United States have become much more integrated. U.S. feedstuffs have facilitated a marked increase in Mexican meat production and consumption, and the importan...
WRS-0501, February 02, 2005
In 2004, China entered a new era in its approach to agricultural policy, as it began to subsidize rather than tax agriculture. China introduced direct subsidies to farmers, began to phase out its centuries-old agricultural tax, subsidized seed and machinery purchases, and increased spending on rural...
WRS-04-0502, October 12, 2004
This report examines the prospects for grain exports by the transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Newly Independent States (NIS) that export through the Black Sea, the largest being Russia and Ukraine. If productivity growth in the region is high, annual grain exports by B...
WRS-0408, October 12, 2004
China's rapid economic growth has been driven by high rates of investment, gains in productivity, and liberalized foreign trade and investment. China's growth is likely to continue, but the Chinese economy faces some possibly unsustainable pressures.
WRS-0407, August 25, 2004
The European Union continued to reform its Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in 2003-04, building on the reforms of 1992 and 1999. The centerpiece of the latest reforms is the introduction of a single farm payment (SFP), which is paid to EU farmers based on historical payments unrelated to current pr...
WRS-0406, June 01, 2004
International trade in fruits and vegetables has expanded at a higher rate than trade in other agricultural commodities, particularly since the 1980s. Not only has world trade in fruits and vegetables gained prominence, but the variety of commodities has expanded. Over the years, three regions—the E...
WRS-040501, April 22, 2004
This is part of a series of reports on the integration of the transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Newly Independent States (NIS) into global commodity markets. This report analyzes the likely impacts of European Union (EU) enlargement on production and trade in the CEE c...
WRS-0404, February 27, 2004
This report provides information and analysis on a wide range of topics relating to agriculture in the United States and European Union (EU), including comparisons of farm structure, production, agricultural productivity, risk management, environmental, commodity policy, trade, and food consumption,...
WRS-04-03, February 02, 2004
Poultry meat is the fastest growing component of global meat demand, and India, the world's second largest developing country, is experiencing rapid growth in its poultry sector. In India, poultry sector growth is being driven by rising incomes and a rapidly expanding middle class, together with the...
WRS-04-02, January 23, 2004
This report examines the economic rationale behind the various claims about the effects of mandatory country-of-origin labeling, thereby identifying the most likely outcomes. Profits motivate firms to innovate and introduce thousands of new food products each year to satisfy consumers' demand. Yet, ...
WRS-0401, January 08, 2004
This report examines the impacts of sanitary and phytosanitary measures that can affect patterns of trade in horticultural products by increasing the costs of imports or prohibiting them entirely. World Trade Organization members agreed in 1995 to rules to prevent the protectionist use of such measu...
WRS-0302, December 03, 2003
Analysis of world meat production reveals poultry as the fastest growing livestock sector in many middle-income countries, including Egypt. While income growth fuels rising demand for meat, other factors often determine how that demand will be satisfied. Domestic and trade policies, as well as resou...
WRS-03-01, May 22, 2003
India has the world's largest pulse sector, but despite liberal import policies, imports have remained a small share of supplies and per capita consumption has declined. This report describes the market for crops such as chickpeas, pigeon peas, black matpe, mung beans, lentils, and dry peas in that ...
WRS-0201, July 30, 2002
This report assesses the impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on U.S. agriculture and trade. It also contains sections on investment, employment, the environment, and transportation, as well as detailed commodity assessments of the impact of NAFTA on trade.
WRS-013, December 28, 2001
This report identifies key factors underlying the agricultural productivity growth and enhanced international competitiveness of Brazil and Argentina in the past decade. Economic and policy reforms, infrastructure development, and enhanced use of agricultural inputs that drove output growth during t...
WRS-012, November 08, 2001
The Chinese grain sector faces pressure from both external competition and internal shifts in consumer preferences that could reshape the industry. The report focuses on the long-term expectations for China's agriculture in the face of continued growth and openness to trade.
WRS-01-1, May 30, 2001
Higher income, urbanization, other demographic shifts, improved transportation, and consumer perceptions regarding quality and safety are changing global food consumption patterns. Shifts in food consumption have led to increased trade and changes in the composition of world agricultural trade. Give...
WRS-99-1A, April 14, 2000
This is the second part of ERS’s report on the effects of the North American Free Trade
Agreement (NAFTA) on U.S. agriculture. The first part, WRS-99-1, was published in August
1999 and contains the following sections: Developments in Trade, Policies, and Dispute
Resolution; Employment in U.S. Agric...
WRS-99-4, March 16, 2000
China’s economic growth is slowing, primarily due to
reduced domestic consumer demand. Growth in China’s
gross domestic product dropped to 7.1 percent in 1999, the
slowest since 1983. Exports, which had risen 21 percent in
1997 and an astonishing 15.5 percent a year on average
during 1980-97, c...
WRS-99-3, March 07, 2000
This report brings together background information for assessing the impacts of the 1997-99 financial crises on agriculture. It tells
the story of the crises, how they affect the crisis countries’ agriculture and trade, and how U.S. agricultural trade is affected.
WRS-99-3, March 01, 2000
This report focuses on the macroeconomic and financial linkages
to agriculture of the international financial crises that
occurred in 1997 through early 1999. Particularly, it discusses
what brought the affected countries to crisis, how the crisis-led
macroeconomic linkages affected agriculture, and...
WRS-992, October 01, 1999
Provision for the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) was integral to the agreements that established the European Union (EU) and the CAP has been among the most important EU policies administered and funded in common. Revisions or " reforms " of the CAP have been numerous,in response to dramatic chang...
WRS-99-1, August 02, 1999
NAFTA is best viewed as a continuing process of economic integration among the three member countries: Canada, Mexico,
and the United States. As NAFTA begins its sixth year, it is clear that the agreement has significantly affected all three countries.
At the end of 1998, U.S. agricultural exports t...
WRS-98-4, December 01, 1998
The Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations continued
the process of reducing trade barriers achieved in
seven previous rounds of negotiations. Among the Uruguay
Round’s most significant accomplishments were the adoption
of new rules governing agricultural trade policy, the
WRS-98-1, November 10, 1998
An FTAA that eliminates tariffs among the 34 Western Hemisphere
countries would benefit the U.S. agricultural sector and the U.S.
economy as a whole--if the United States were part of the
arrangement. If the other Western Hemisphere countries formed an
FTAA without the United States, the impact on t...
WRS-98-3, July 01, 1998
The Asian financial crisis is pressuring China’s economic
growth this year. China’s labor-intensive export goods are
meeting stiff competition from other Asian economies. After
averaging 11 percent annually during the past 5 years,
China’s GDP is expected to drop below the 8-percent target
set by th...
WRS-98-2, June 11, 1998
Economic reform in the transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States (NIS) of the former USSR has initially reduced both agricultural output and productivity. The livestock industry has been particularly hurt. The main way by which agricultural output can rebound...
WRS-97-5, December 01, 1997
The EU’s system of tariff-rate quotas (TRQs)1 that are notified
under the Uruguay Round will have only a limited
impact on the level of EU imports. EU agricultural imports
under its Uruguay Round TRQs are estimated to increase
almost $1 billion by 2000/01, the final year of URAA
WRS-97-2, September 03, 1997
Even at this relatively early stage in its implementation, the
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) among the United
States, Mexico, and Canada has had a positive effect overall on
U.S. agriculture, reinforcing the trend toward greater
integration of markets in North America. The competi...
WRS-973, June 02, 1997
International Agriculture and Trade Reports are published five times yearly by the Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.
WRS-96-S3S, October 29, 1996
FSU gross agricultural output will continue to fall in 1996, but at a
significantly lower rate than in 1995, due to a rebound in grain output. Increased grain production and continued reduction in feed use, caused by further contractions in the region's largest livestock producing countries, are e...
WRS-96-3, September 25, 1996
Trade in agricultural products is expected to grow rapidly over the next decade both within the North American market and between North America and the rest of the world. Trade liberalization under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) will continue to bolster the economic forces that ar...
WRS-0925, September 25, 1996
Trade in agricultural products is expected to grow rapidly over the next decade
both within the North American market and between North America and the rest of
the world. Trade liberalization under the North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA) will continue to bolster the economic forces that are...
WRS-96-2, June 28, 1996
As the country enters the first year of the Ninth 5-Year Plan (1996-2000), China's economic policymakers have reiterated their
commitment to continued reform. Although economic growth and
price inflation in 1995 remained in double digits, the economy
performed much closer to initial targets tha...
WRS-95-3, June 30, 1995
U.S. agricultural exports to China are expected to increase in 1995 because of rising cotton, corn, soybean oil, and other agricultural product sales. U.S. exports for 1994 totaled more than $1 billion, up sharply from $376 million in 1993. China's 1994 agricultural trade (imports and exports) rose...
WRS-95-2, June 12, 1995
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which liberalizes trade among the United States, Canada, and Mexico, started its second year on January 1, 1995. The agricultural provisions of NAFTA call for the elimination of tariffs and non-tariff barriers among the members over 15 years, which s...