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153 publications, sorted by date 

ERR-211, July 29, 2016
ERS examines demand for convenience foods in recent years and the mechanisms driving the demand, including changes in prices of convenience foods and in consumers’ income, the amount of hours worked by household heads, and advertising.
EIB-158, July 28, 2016
ERS analyzed food and food-related time use patterns by factors such as income level and participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC).
EIB-157, July 27, 2016
Food spending and other key outcome measures in USDA’s comprehensive, detailed survey of household food acquisition and purchases (FoodAPS) are comparable to estimates from other key national surveys measuring specific variables.
EIB-156, July 27, 2016
Nearly all households acquire food at least once during the week; 87 percent visited supermarkets and 85 percent visited restaurants at least once. Households, SNAP and non-SNAP, acquired food at no cost on 22 percent of occasions.
Amber Waves, July 05, 2016
Researchers linked ERS's food availability data with food intake survey data to break down national food and vegetable consumption trends by age, gender, education level, income, and race/ethnic background. They found that declines in fruit and vegetable consumption—driven by falling consumption of ...
Amber Waves, June 30, 2016
Food security for 76 low- and middle-income countries is expected to improve during 2016-26 as the number of food-insecure people falls by 59 percent. Over the same period, the share of the population that is food insecure is expected to drop from 17 to 6 percent.
GFA-27, June 30, 2016
The share of food-insecure people in the 76 low- and middle-income countries included in this report is projected to fall from 17 percent in 2016 to 6 percent in 2026. The number of food-insecure people is projected to fall by 59 percent.
AP-070, May 17, 2016
The 2014-16 Eating & Health Module User's Guide (2016 Edition) provides detailed guidance to researchers on how to use the Module to measure time use and eating patterns.
ERR-207, May 05, 2016
Since WIC households incur no cost for WIC-approved foods, they may be less sensitive to prices when using benefits than when paying out of pocket, an assumption this study addresses by analysis of cold cereal purchases.
Amber Waves, May 02, 2016
Global soybean and products trade is projected to rise rapidly over the next 10 years according to USDA Agricultural Projections to 2025. The primary factors driving this increase include population and income growth, which are behind the rising world demand for livestock products, as well ...
TB-1942, April 13, 2016
This report examines the methodology, characteristics, and statistical properties of food scanner data purchased by ERS. It provides an introduction to the data for new users and important considerations for advanced users.
ERR-206, March 30, 2016
ERS drew on national dietary intake surveys to break down the ERS Loss-Adjusted Food Availability data and show food consumption by demographic characteristics for 63 commodities (who eats what food commodities and how much).
LDPM-259-01, January 29, 2016
ERS examines how Japanese importers view U.S. beef vis-à-vis imports from Australia and other countries, how imports differ across beef products, and how market access reform might affect Japanese beef imports.
FTS-360, September 30, 2015
The Fruit and Tree Nuts Outlook report analyzes supply-and-demand conditions in the U.S. fruit and tree nuts markets and provides projections on market conditions for 2015 apple, pear, cranberry, grape and peach crops as well as 2014/15 citrus crops, both fresh and processed markets. It incl...
EIB-143, August 20, 2015
School meal programs are adjusting to stronger nutritional standards, but face challenges in maintaining paid lunch participation to meet revenue goals and to help avoid stigma toward children receiving free or reduced-price food.
FTS-359, June 30, 2015
Peach, cherry, and prune production forecast down from last season. The decline in peach output has only put little upward pressure on prices. Shipments of melons are up through June.
Amber Waves, June 01, 2015
Federal investments in nutrition research more than doubled in inflation-adjusted dollars from 1985 to 2009, with more research being funded in the later years through competitive grants to non-Federal researchers than through Federal nutrition laboratories or land-grant universities.
Amber Waves, April 06, 2015
USDA’s Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) directly affects participants’ health through improved diets and greater use of health care services. WIC also indirectly impacts food choices, diet, and health of non-participants through its effects on food stores...
Amber Waves, March 02, 2015
To reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, some policymakers and nutrition advocates argue that Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits should not be allowed to be used for purchasing these beverages.
Amber Waves, February 02, 2015
New calorie labeling laws requiring chain restaurants and other eating places to post the calorie content of their offerings on menus and menu boards are most likely to influence food choices when consumers learn new, surprising information.
AP-068, January 29, 2015
ERS details current economic information on local food producers, consumers, and policies, based on findings from several national surveys and a synthesis of recent literature.
WHS-2015-1, January 06, 2015
Report reviews U.S. wheat production, use, and price by class of wheat for the 2013/14 marketing year.
Amber Waves, December 01, 2014
If agricultural productivity growth slows in future years, how will global agricultural output, consumption, land use, and prices adjust? To address this question, ERS researchers recently used the agency’s global agricultural and energy economic model—the Future Agricultural Resources Model (FARM)...
ERR-178, November 20, 2014
ERS examines the effects of time-use behaviors, sociodemographic characteristics, labor force participation, and prices on fast-food purchasing patterns in the United States before and after the 2007-09 recession.
Amber Waves, November 03, 2014
Participants in USDA’s Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) value nutrition as much as other consumers, but their attempts to balance nutrition goals with competing constraints—time, distance to grocery stores, and money—may make it harder for SNAP shoppers to make healthy choices.
ERR-174, September 18, 2014
ERS examines hypothetical economic and agricultural sector responses to changes in key drivers of supply and demand in the future—agricultural productivity, population, and per capita income.
Amber Waves, June 02, 2014
ERS estimates that 31 percent, or 133 billion pounds, of food available for consumption in U.S. grocery stores, restaurants, and homes went uneaten in 2010. Greater awareness of the amount of food loss—and where and why it occurs—may help spur public and private responses.
TB-1938, May 21, 2014
ERS’s new Quarterly Food-Away-from-Home Prices (QFAFHP) data show substantial variation in prices across U.S. regions and food establishment types, with implications for analyses of food purchasing behavior and dietary outcomes.
Amber Waves, May 05, 2014
When ERS researchers examined the types of vegetables and vegetable-containing foods eaten by Americans, they found that instead of eating vegetables in their simple, unadorned state, Americans often eat vegetables prepared in ways that add calories and sodium and remove dietary fiber.
AP-063, May 01, 2014
ERS in partnership with USDA’s Food and Nutrition Service is inviting proposals to establish the USDA Center for Behavioral Economics and Healthy Food Choice Research. The USDA Center will apply behavioral economics to food choice behaviors, including consumer, food industry, and retailer behaviors,...
Amber Waves, March 04, 2014
Between 2005 and 2010, Americans experienced large changes in employment and income that affected their food expenditures and intake. Once demographic characteristics unrelated to the Great Recession are controlled for, food-away-from-home (FAFH) calories among working-age adults declined about 15 p...
ERR-161, January 16, 2014
Survey data show diet quality improvements from 2005 to 2010 among working-age adults, with changes in intake of calories, saturated fat, cholesterol, and fiber, and fewer meals outside the home.
ERR-160, November 26, 2013
The transmission of fuel prices to wholesale produce prices depends not only on distance from farm to sales point, but also on the transportation method, import shares and seasonality issues, and perishability.
Amber Waves, September 03, 2013
ERS research found that offering school lunches with a healthier mix of vegetables was associated with higher consumption of healthier vegetables, but also higher food costs. "Nudging" students can increase acceptance of healthier foods.
AES-79, August 29, 2013
U.S. agricultural exports in fiscal 2014 are forecast down from the previous year's record-high. Exports are expected to fall $5 billion to $135 billion. Imports in fiscal 2014 are expected reach a record $113 billion.
ERR-154, August 27, 2013
In schools already meeting new daily nutrition standards for fruits and vegetables as of 2005, students ate more of these foods than where the standards were not met. But many students did not eat any of the offered fruits and vegetables.
Amber Waves, July 01, 2013
Food companies included voluntary health- or nutrition-related claims on more than 40 percent of new foods and beverages in 2010 – attributes such as low in fat, high in fiber, gluten-free, and sodium-free.
EIB-114, June 26, 2013
Over half of secondary school students consume competitive foods on a typical day; most choices would not meet nutrition standards. Foodservices in affluent districts obtain more revenue from competitive foods.
ERR-149, May 29, 2013
Americans consumed progressively less fluid milk, on average, for over six decades. Since at least the 1970s, differences in intake frequency between older and younger generations have contributed to the per capita decline in intake.
ERR-146, April 16, 2013
By buying lower price products, households can withstand price and income changes without reducing overall fluid milk consumption. Demand for organic milk responds more to swings in income and food prices than does conventional milk demand.
Amber Waves, February 21, 2013
In grocery stores, Americans underspend on fruits, vegetables, and whole grains and overspend on refined grains, fats, and sugars/sweets, compared with dietary guidance Away-from-home foods are even less consistent with dietary guidance.
EIB-108, February 20, 2013
New food products introduced with voluntary health- and nutrition-related claims accounted for 43.1 percent of all new U.S. food product introductions in 2010, up from 25.2 percent in 2001 and 34.6 percent in 1989.
SSSM-294, February 14, 2013
The Sugar and Sweeteners Outlook for February 2013 reviews the sugar and sweetener outlook for the United States and Mexico, emphasizing changes made in the February 2013 World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report. Also included is a special chapter on USDA long term projections o...
SSSM-293, January 17, 2013
The Sugar and Sweetener Outlook for January 2013 reviews the sugar and sweetener outlook for the United States and Mexico, emphasizing changes made in the January 2013 World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report.
EIB-105, December 27, 2012
Americans are consuming more of their daily caloric intake away from home, primarily from table-service and fast-food restaurants.
VGS-352, December 18, 2012
The 2012 U.S. dry bean crop is expected to reach 31.8 million cwt, an increase of almost 60 percent from low production levels of 2011.
OCS-12L, December 12, 2012
ERS -- working closely with the World Agricultural Outlook Board, the Foreign Agricultural Service, and other USDA agencies -- conducts market analysis and provides short- and long-term projections of U.S. and world agricultural production, consumption, and trade.
OCS-12-k, November 13, 2012
ERS -- working closely with the World Agricultural Outlook Board, the Foreign Agricultural Service, and other USDA agencies -- conducts market analysis and provides short- and long-term projections of U.S. and world agricultural production, consumption, and trade.
EIB-102, November 08, 2012
Americans have a long way to go in conforming to dietary guidelines when purchasing food for home; they buy too few fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and choose foods with too many fats and added sugars.
OCS-12J, October 12, 2012
ERS--working closely with the World Agricultural Outlook Board, the Foreign Agricultural Service, and other USDA agencies--conducts market analysis and provides short- and long-term projections of U.S. and world agricultural production, consumption, and trade.
VGS-351, September 27, 2012
Use of chickpeas (garbanzo beans) has increased in the United States as consumption of food such as humus expands. I n 2012, a record 196,900 acres were planted with Washington, Idaho, and California leading producers in the previous year.
FTS-353, September 27, 2012
Multiple spring freezes and summer’s high temperatures and dry conditions hampered progress of many fruit crops across the country, affecting growing regions or areas at different magnitude levels. Forecast smaller U.S. apple, pear, and grape crops this year will likely boost their prices during th...
Amber Waves, September 20, 2012
Factors in consumer response to price changes include income, size of the price change, availability of substitutes, and expected length of price changes. See this and other features in September Amber Waves.
SSSM-289, September 17, 2012
The Sugar and Sweetener Outlook reviews the sugar and sweetener outlook for the United States and Mexico, emphasizing changes made in the most recent month's edition of the World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report.
OCS-12i, September 13, 2012
ERS--working closely with the World Agricultural Outlook Board, the Foreign Agricultural Service, and other USDA agencies--conducts market analysis and provides short- and long-term projections of U.S. and world agricultural production, consumption, and trade.
ERR-139, August 23, 2012
Food away from home (FAFH) comprises nearly half of all U.S. consumer food expenditures. Hence, policies designed to influence nutritional outcomes would be incomplete if they did not address the role of FAFH. However, because of data limitations, most studies of the response of food demand to polic...
SSSM-288, August 15, 2012
The Sugar and Sweetener Outlook reviews the sugar and sweetener outlook for the United States and Mexico, emphasizing changes made in the most recent month’s edition of the World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report.
OCS-12h, August 13, 2012
ERS -- working closely with the World Agricultural Outlook Board, the Foreign Agricultural Service, and other USDA agencies -- conducts market analysis and provides short- and long-term projections of U.S. and world agricultural production, consumption, and trade
SSSM-287, July 16, 2012
The Sugar and Sweetener Outlook reviews the sugar and sweetener outlook for the United States and Mexico, emphasizing changes made in the most recent month’s edition of the World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report.
OCS-12G, July 12, 2012
ERS--working closely with the World Agricultural Outlook Board, the Foreign Agricultural Service, and other USDA agencies--conducts market analysis and provides short- and long-term projections of U.S. and world agricultural production, consumption, and trade.
FTS-352, June 28, 2012
This season’s Southern Hemisphere blueberry shipments to the United States (primarily from Chile) have already ended and sourcing has now transitioned to domestic production. Current domestic pricing for fresh blueberries is above last year’s, caused by an early finish to Chilean shipments this wint...
ERR-133, May 30, 2012
Focusing on India, which has the world’s largest food-insecure population, ERS analyzes a large household data set used by India’s government to track household food security.
EIB-96, May 16, 2012
How food items are priced (by calorie, by weight, or by average amount consumed) has a large effect on which foods are determined to be more expensive.
EIB-86, November 09, 2011
ERS presents an overview of Americans' eating and other food-related time-use patterns, including grocery shopping, meal preparation, and teenagers' time-use patterns in relation to school meals.
EIB-83, September 23, 2011
ERS finds that there is a heightened realism among Americans about their own diets, and examines how perceptions of diet quality vary with food expenditures, household food availability, and eating patterns.
GFA-22, July 15, 2011
ERS assesses the food security situation in 77 developing countries, including estimates for 2011 and projections for the next decade. The report is the latest in an annual series.
TB-1929, March 22, 2011
In a 2003 report, International Evidence on Food Consumption Patterns, ERS economists estimated income and price elasticities of demand for broad consumption categories and food categories across 114 countries using 1996 International Comparison Program (ICP) data. This report updates that analysis ...
EIB-71, February 01, 2011
ERS used retail scanner data to estimate the average prices of 153 fresh and processed fruits and vegetables. The report includes estimates of the cost of meeting the recommendations of USDA’s recently released 2010 Dietary Guidelines
TB-1927, January 03, 2011
The Food Availability (per capita) Data System developed by USDA’s Economic Research Service tracks annual food and nutrient availability for many commodities. The Food Availability data series in this system overstates actual consumption, so ERS has included an additional series, the Loss-Adjusted ...
TB-1928, December 13, 2010
This report examines retail purchase data for 12 dairy products and margarine from the Nielsen 2007 Homescan retail data. Selected demographic and socioeconomic variables included in the Nielsen data are analyzed for their effects on aggregate demand and expenditure elasticities for the selected pro...
Amber Waves, December 01, 2010
Local foods are reaching consumers through an expanding array of supply chain arrangements and marketing outlets. They may be sold in supermarkets; small specialty stores or regional chains; restaurants, schools, or hospitals; or a variety of direct-to-consumer outlets.
Amber Waves, December 01, 2010
Local foods remain a small portion of U.S. agriculture. But as interest in local food systems has increased, so has the desire to understand how local food markets affect farmers, consumers, and communities
VGS-341-01, December 01, 2010
This report examines the significance of dry bean trade to the member countries of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), provides a detailed understanding of supply, demand, and policy in the U.S. and Mexican dry bean sectors, and considers the outlook for these industries.
AP-050, November 10, 2010
The Senate Report 111-039 accompanying S. 1406, the 2010 Agriculture Appropriations Bill, requested that the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Economic Research Service (ERS) prepare and publish a report regarding consumer perceptions of canned fruits and vegetables. In the absence of consumer...
ERR-105, October 22, 2010
ERS compares prices for a wide range of foods in traditional retail food stores and nontraditional discount stores. Findings show nontraditional retailers offer lower prices than traditional stores, even controlling for brand and package size.
ERR-104, October 04, 2010
Compared with meals and snacks prepared at home, food prepared away from home increases caloric intake of children, especially older children. Among older children, food away from home also lowers their daily diet quality.
LDPM-193-01, August 12, 2010
Cheese production and markets have emerged as important elements of the dairy industry over the past three decades. Supply-and-use analysis shows an upward trend in total cheese consumption over the past three decades. Nielsen 2005 retail Homescan data were used to analyze cheese consumption by loca...
GFA-21, July 08, 2010
Food security in 70 developing countries is estimated to have improved between 2009 and 2010, due in part to economic recovery in many of these countries. Over the next decade, the overall number of food-insecure people is projected to decline slightly.
ERR-100, July 02, 2010
ERS analyzes the effects of a hypothetical tax on caloric sweetened sodas, fruit drinks, sports and energy drinks, and powdered mixes. What choices would consumers make, and what would it mean for their calorie intake?
ERR-96, June 03, 2010
ERS compares the potential effectiveness of coupons versus price discounts in encouraging fruit and vegetable consumption among participants in Federal food and nutrition assistance programs.
AP-047, April 05, 2010
The Eating & Health (EH) Module of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) collects additional data to analyze relationships among time use patterns and eating patterns, nutrition, and obesity; food and nutrition assistance programs; and grocery shopping and meal preparation. This User’s Guide provides ...
TB-1925, March 19, 2010
This report presents a simple methodology for calculating cross-price elasticities across countries, using the Frisch own-price elasticity. Cross-price elasticities are calculated for 9 major consumption categories from the 1996 International Comparison Program data across 114 countries. The consump...
ERR-94, March 10, 2010
Energy is an important input in growing, processing, packaging, distributing, storing, preparing, serving, and disposing of food. Analysis using the two most recent U.S. benchmark input-output accounts and a national energy data system shows that in the United States, use of energy along the food ch...
Amber Waves, March 01, 2010
ERS maintains the only time-series data on U.S. food availability in the country. The data help in monitoring the potential for the food supply to meet the nutritional needs of Americans and in examining consumption trends. A look at 100 years of American eating reveals the technological, political...
ERR-90, February 16, 2010
Consumption data show that for the average adult, meals away from home have an impact on daily caloric intake and diet quality.
VGS-333-01, August 19, 2009
Growth over time in the demand for fresh vegetables for at-home consumption may slow because of differences in the behavior of younger and older birth cohorts. A birth cohort includes people born in the same year and is similar in concept to a generation. People born around the same point in history...
GFA-20, June 30, 2009
Food security in 70 developing countries is projected to deteriorate over the next decade, according to USDA’s Economic Research Service. After rising nearly 11 percent from 2007 to 2008, the number of food-insecure people in the developing countries analyzed by ERS researchers is estimated to rise ...
EIB-44, March 20, 2009
Using new national estimates of supermarket food loss, ERS updates each fresh fruit, vegetable, meat, and poultry commodity in its Loss-Adjusted Food Availability data series.
ERR-71, February 05, 2009
The aging of Japan’s population only partially explains the downward trend in orange consumption, and the negative trend could continue.
ERR-70, January 09, 2009
ERS study found that a 10-percent reduction in prices would encourage low-income Americans to raise consumption of fruit by 2.1-5.2 percent and vegetables by 2.1-4.9 percent.
ERR-69, December 30, 2008
Researchers use Nielsen Homescan data, which provide detailed food-purchase information from a panel of U.S. households, to address a variety of important research topics. However, some question the credibility of the data since the data are self-recorded and the recording process is time-consuming....
EIB-39, September 09, 2008
This report examines U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) data on refusals of food offered for importation into the United States from 1998 to 2004. Although the data do not necessarily reflect the distribution of risk in foods, the study found that import refusals highlight food safety problems ...
ERR-62, August 11, 2008
Using a consumer demand model, ERS illustrates how both long-term health objectives and immediate visceral influences (e.g., time pressure) influence food choices.
ERR-61, July 18, 2008
The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is the Nation’s second largest food and nutrition assistance program. In 2006, it operated in over 101,000 public and nonprofit private schools and provided over 28 million low-cost or free lunches to children on a typical school day at a Federal cost of $8 b...
GFA-19, July 03, 2008
The number of food insecure people in the 70 lower income countries covered in this report rose between 2006 and 2007, from 849 million to 982 million. Food insecure people are those consuming less than the nutritional target of 2,100 calories per day. The food security situation of these countries ...
EIB-33, March 28, 2008
ERS investigates trends in U.S. food consumption from 1970 to 2005. Results suggest many Americans still fall short of Federal dietary recommendations for whole grains, lower fat dairy products, and fruits and vegetables.
ERR-55, March 12, 2008
Evidence suggest that a wide class of unprepared fresh fruits and vegetables—those that have not been combined with labor-saving attributes—display declining prices along with prices of commonly consumed dessert and snack foods
ERR-50, November 26, 2007
ERS compared consumption of refined and whole grains with recommendations of the 2005 Dietary Guidelines, considering the consumers’ social, economic, and demographic characteristics.
EIB-29-8, September 27, 2007
Currently, the effects of the Food Stamp Program on the food choices and diet quality of participants are the subject of much debate. Improved evaluation of the nutrition and health effects of the program would be of use to program and policy officials, but most of the existing research is limited b...
EIB-29-7, September 27, 2007
With obesity the most prevalent nutrition problem facing Americans at all economic levels, promoting diets that provide adequate nutrition without too many calories has become an important objective for the Food Stamp Program. Findings from behavioral economics suggest innovative, low-cost ways to i...
EIB-29-6, September 27, 2007
The Food Stamp Nutrition Education (FSNE) component of the Food Stamp Program is intended to improve the food choices, diet quality, and health of program participants. This brief discusses the FSNE program, how it operates, and how it has grown over time. The brief also considers the challenges of ...
EIB-29-5, September 27, 2007
This brief examines how consumers respond to food prices and how consumers’ response to price influences their purchases of particular foods, using examples drawn from previous ERS research. Implications of the findings for the use of price interventions to improve food choices are considered.
EIB-29-4, September 27, 2007
The Food Stamp Program provides benefits that low-income households can use to purchase food in grocery stores. The rise in obesity has raised the question of whether food stamp participants would purchase more healthy foods, such as fruits and vegetables, if food stamp benefits were higher. This re...
EIB-29-3, September 27, 2007
The cost of “enough food,” estimated from the amount that low- and medium-income households in a geographic area report needing to spend to just meet their food needs, differs substantially across States and among metropolitan areas. In areas with high food costs, many food-stamp recipients are like...
EIB-29-1, September 27, 2007
The increased food purchasing power offered by the Food Stamp Program can promote food security and improve the overall economic well-being of low-income households. Now, as Americans struggle with obesity and other diet-related health problems, there is interest in whether the program can be more e...
EIB-29, September 27, 2007
Eight economic information bulletins compile evidence to address the question of whether the Food Stamp Program could do more to encourage healthful food choices.
GFA-18, June 28, 2007
The number of hungry people in the 70 lower income countries covered in this report rose between 2005 and 2006, from 804 million to 849 million. However, the food distribution gap—an indicator of food access—declined, which means that, although more people are vulnerable to food insecurity, the inte...
ERR-43, June 01, 2007
The increasing presence of nontraditional grocery retailers such as supercenters is generating new cost-cutting and differentiation strategies among traditional food retailers.
EIB-23, March 13, 2007
Using data from the most recent Consumer Expenditure Survey, ERS presents information on nationwide urban food expenditure patterns by select demographic and socioeconomic characteristics.
VGS-31901, March 06, 2007
Carrots are one of the most popular vegetables in the United States and fresh-market carrot consumption has been increasing over the past few decades. Using a combination of ACNielsen Homescan panel data and USDA’s Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, this article examines where and how...
ERR-34, December 29, 2006
ERS examines retail purchases of beef and beef products for evidence of response to the 2003 government announcements of finding cows infected with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).
ERR-31, November 20, 2006
To help Americans meet nutritional requirements while staying within caloric recommendations, the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans encourage consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole-grain products, and fat-free or low-fat milk or milk products. This report provides one view of the potential imp...
ERR-20, August 25, 2006
Low-income households that participate in the Food Stamp Program can achieve a healthy diet if they use the Thrifty Food Plan (TFP) as a guide for their food shopping. Most studies measuring the degree to which low-income households follow the TFP have compared total household food expenditures—for ...
VGS-31301, April 17, 2006
This report describes the economic characteristics of the U.S. fruit and vegetable industry, providing supply, demand, and policy background for an industry that accounts for nearly a third of U.S. crop cash receipts and a fifth of U.S. agricultural exports.
LDPM-13502, October 07, 2005
Beef is a highly consumed meat in the United States, averaging 67 pounds per person per year. Findings based on the 1994-96 and 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) indicate that most beef was eaten at home. Annual beef consumption per person was highest in the Midwest (73 p...
EIB-5, September 29, 2005
Food Dynamics provides the most up-to-date information on consumer behavior and retail food market conditions.
ERR-8, July 20, 2005
Over 60 percent of China's consumers live on farms. Consequently, a large share of the agricultural commodities produced in China is consumed on farms by the rural population. This study of rural food consumption patterns in China finds that rural households rely on self-produced commodities, especi...
Amber Waves, June 01, 2005
The 2005 Dietary Guidelines encourage all Americans over age 2 to eat roughly half of their recommended 5 to 10 daily servings of grains, depending on calorie needs. The goal of this new recommendation is to improve Americans' health by raising awareness of whole grains and their role in nutritious ...
LDPM-13001, May 12, 2005
Pork ranks third in annual U.S. meat consumption, behind beef and chicken, averaging 51 pounds per person. The Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) indicates that most pork is consumed at home. Pork consumption is highest in the Midwest, followed by the South, the Northeast, and ...
Amber Waves, April 01, 2005
The new Federal recommendations in the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans would require the typical American to eat almost twice the amount of fruits and vegetables he is now consuming and to choose a more varied mix of these healthy foods. With this in mind, nutritionists and produce marketers ...
FANRR-26-11, February 14, 2005
This study compared consumption patterns of WIC children with those of three different comparison groups: eligible nonparticipating children living in non-WIC households, eligible nonparticipating children living in WIC households, and children living in households whose income is too high to be eli...
AIB-796-5, February 14, 2005
The Nutrition and Health Characteristics of Low-Income Populations study examined several eating behaviors for children and adults using 1988-94 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III) data. This summary focuses on the nutritional biochemistry blood tests and bone density measu...
AIB-796-4, February 14, 2005
The Nutrition and Health Characteristics of Low-Income Populations study examined several eating behaviors for children and adults using 1988-94 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III) data. The measures provide a baseline to monitor eating behaviors of Americans, focusing on t...
AIB-796-3, February 14, 2005
The Nutrition and Health Characteristics of Low-Income Populations study examined several measures of body weight status for children and adults using 1988-94 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. The measures provide a baseline to monitor the weight status of Americans, fo...
AIB-796-1, February 14, 2005
The Healthy Eating Index measures how well American diets conform to recommended healthy eating patterns, looking at 10 dietary components. The Nutrition and Health Characteristics of Low-Income Populations study examined the Healthy Eating Index using 1988-94 National Health and Nutrition Examinati...
AIB-796, February 14, 2005
The five summaries in the Nutrition and Health Characteristics of Low-Income Populations series highlight key findings of the multi-volume Nutrition and Health Outcomes Study. The summaries examine the nutritional and health status of: Food Stamp Program (FSP) participants; Special Supplemental Nutr...
AER-839, December 15, 2004
Whether the poor pay more for food than other income groups is an important question in food price policy research. Stores serving low-income shoppers differ in important ways from stores that receive less of their revenues from Food Stamp redemptions. Stores with more revenues from Food Stamps are ...
EFAN-04014-1, December 01, 2004
Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III), conducted in 1988-94, were used to compare the nutrition and health characteristics of participants and nonparticipants in the Food Stamp Program (FSP). FSP participants were compared with two groups of nonparticipant...
AIB-791, October 28, 2004
This report uses data from the USDA's 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and the 1994-96 Diet and Health Knowledge Survey to ascertain whether economic factors help explain weight differences among adults. Weight differs among demographic subgroups, and differences in specific ...
AIB-747, August 13, 2004
These reports synthesize economic analyses of the complex relationships in food markets of interest to officials responsible for public policy, decisionmakers in the industry, and researchers. Topics addressed so far include the economizing practices of low-income households in making food purchases...
AIB-790, July 20, 2004
This analysis uses ACNielsen Homescan data on 1999 household food purchases from all types of retail outlets to estimate an annual retail price per pound and per serving for 69 forms of fruits and 85 forms of vegetables. Among the forms we priced, more than half were estimated to cost 25 cents or le...
Amber Waves, June 01, 2004
The Amber Waves article presents findings from "Where Demographics Will Take the Food System," first released at the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum Ministerial Meetings in Bangkok, Thailand. For the intermediate term, population growth and other demographic changes such as urbanization are...
EFAN-04004, May 13, 2004
Since the mid-1970s, the prevalence of obesity and overweight has increased dramatically in the United States. The prevalence of overweight has tripled among children and adolescents, and nearly two out of three adult Americans are either overweight or obese. Although high health, social, and econom...
WRS-04-02, January 23, 2004
This report examines the economic rationale behind the various claims about the effects of mandatory country-of-origin labeling, thereby identifying the most likely outcomes. Profits motivate firms to innovate and introduce thousands of new food products each year to satisfy consumers' demand. Yet, ...
AER-829, January 23, 2004
Population trends and rising incomes are expected to sustain growth in spending for food at full-service and fast food restaurants.
WRS-0302, December 03, 2003
Analysis of world meat production reveals poultry as the fastest growing livestock sector in many middle-income countries, including Egypt. While income growth fuels rising demand for meat, other factors often determine how that demand will be satisfied. Domestic and trade policies, as well as resou...
Amber Waves, November 01, 2003
When consumers are made aware that food products are biotech, how will they react? As the largest market for U.S. producers, American consumers will render the ultimate verdict on the future of agricultural biotechnology in the United States.
Amber Waves, November 01, 2003
Changing U.S. demographics—more mature consumers, greater ethnic diversity, and larger incomes—are driving changes in consumer demand for food products. These changing preferences, along with technological advances and other changes in the economy, offer agribusiness companies new challenges and opp...
TB-1904, October 06, 2003
This report analyzes expenditures on major consumption categories including food and different food subcategories across 114 countries. It also presents estimated expenditure responsiveness or elasticities with price and income changes for each of the major consumption categories and food subcategor...
FAU-79-01, July 25, 2003
As U.S. per capita consumption of food grew from an average 1,800 pounds per year in the early 1980s to more than 2,000 pounds in recent years, the import share of U.S. consumed food climbed from 8 percent to more than 11 percent. The import shares of U.S. consumption of animal products and food cro...
Amber Waves, April 01, 2003
Beyond our bustling cities, America's farmlands are ostensibly a Norman Rockwell picture of calm and stability. Red barns, majestic silos, rustic farmhouses, and pastures of grazing livestock are reassuring images that recall a seemingly simpler age. Yet just beyond the old-fashioned barn door are t...
VGS-295-01, March 31, 2003
U.S. mushroom consumption has been increasing over the past several decades. Basic knowledge of the distribution of mushroom consumption across different market channels, geographic regions, and population groups has been very limited in the past. Using data from USDA's 1994-96 and 1998 Continuing S...
AER-820, February 03, 2003
This report analyzes how U.S. consumption of food commodities is projected to rise through 2020. The study uses date from USDA's food intake survey to project the consumption, through 2020, of 25 food groups and 22 commodity groups.
AER-821, February 01, 2003
Over the next two decades, U.S. food expenditures will continue to rise. This study examines how projected food expenditures will be affected by demographic changes, population growth, increasing per capita income levels, and other factors.
FANRR-26-5, August 01, 2002
Although Federal programs provide most food assistance in the U.S., many households rely on private, nonprofit, charitable organizations that provide emergency food in their communities. This issue brief reports findings from the first comprehensive government study of these organizations.
FAU-66-01, July 03, 2002
The import share of U.S. food consumption held steady at 8.8 percent from 1998 to 2000. Import share in 2000 is an average of the 12.3 percent share of U.S. consumption of food crops and crop products and the 4.2 percent share of animal products, including fish and shellfish. These import shares ...
TB-1899, April 01, 2002
This bulletin provides an alternative approach for computing retail-farm price margins. Current published estimates of retail-farm price margins are calculated assuming that food markets are comprised of identical firms producing, in fixed-factor proportions, a homogeneous set of final food products...
AER-806, March 01, 2002
The report examines how economic reform in the transition countries of the former Soviet bloc has transformed the volume and mix of these countries' agricultural production, consumption, and trade. The report concludes that output decline has been an inevitable part of market reform and that the mai...
TB-1887, September 05, 2000
A methodology for estimating a demand system from household survey data is developed and applied to the 1987-88 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey data. The empirical results are sets of estimated demand elasticities for households segmented with different income levels. In addition, we apply these ...
AER-779, July 02, 1999
Recent studies show that average diets differ considerably from Food Guide Pyramid recommendations. The gap between current consumption and recommendations is particularly large for caloric sweeteners, fats and oils, fruits, and certain vegetables, notably dark-green leafy and deep-yellow vegetables...
SB-965, April 02, 1999
This annual bestseller presents historical data on food consumption, prices, and expenditures by commodity and commodity group, supply and use, prices, total expenditures, and U.S. income and population. Includes 29 charts dealing with food consumption trends, from changes in per capita consumption,...
AER-772, December 01, 1998
Most American diets do not meet Federal Food Guide Pyramid dietary recommendations. On average, people consume too many servings of added fats and sugars and too few servings of fruits, vegetables, dairy products, lean meats, and foods made from whole grains--compared with a reference set of Food Gu...
TB-1869, October 20, 1998
This bulletin reports empirical findings on the determinants of food insecurity in the United States, using data from the 1989-91 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals and the 1992 Survey of Income and Program Participation. Descriptive statistics on food insufficiency status (a proxy meas...

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