Amber Waves, April 06, 2015
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)—implemented in 1994 by Canada, Mexico, and the United States—has resulted in expanded flows of intraregional agricultural trade and substantial levels of foreign direct investment in the processed food sector. A more integrated North American market in...
FTS-358, March 27, 2015
A fractional decline in domestic citrus production is forecast, but gains in mandarins' and lemons' production should place downward pressure on grower prices. Winter strawberry supplies are ample.
WRS-15-01, February 02, 2015
In 20 years after NAFTA’s implementation, U.S. agricultural exports to Canada and Mexico increased from $8.9 billion to $39.5 billion, while U.S. agricultural imports from these trading partners rose from $7.4 billion to $39.4 billion.
VGS-354, September 30, 2014
Despite the decrease in domestic production of fresh-market vegetables, both producer and consumer prices are down as import volumes fill the gaps.
FTS-357-01, September 29, 2014
ERS analyzes seasonal patterns in grower prices for several major U.S. fresh fruits markets. Strawberries, grapes, and peaches all have distinct seasonal price patterns. In several cases, the timing of high and low prices has shifted.
FTS-357, September 26, 2014
Abundant apple supplies will move to markets in the 2014/15 marketing year, putting downward pressure on U.S. apple prices. The 2014 U.S. pear crop is forecast 9 percent smaller than a year ago.
Amber Waves, July 07, 2014
Organic program provisions in the 2014 Farm Act cover a broad set of objectives—assisting with organic certification costs, expanding organic research and data collection, improving technical assistance and crop insurance, strengthening enforcement of organic regulations, and expanding market opport...
ERR-168, July 07, 2014
ERS reports the rates at which inspection of fruit and vegetable imports into the United States result in phytosanitary treatments at the border, and finds little evidence that phytosanitary regulations affect imports significantly.
EIB-123, April 29, 2014
Small acreage does not necessarily translate into low farm sales. About 17 percent (50,000) of farms with 10 or fewer acres had gross sales of at least $10,000 in 2007, and approximately 6,000 had sales of more than $250,000 that year.
EIB-121, February 20, 2014
In the United States, 31 percent—or 133 billion pounds—of the 430 billion pounds of the available food supply at retail and consumer levels went uneaten in 2010.
Errata: On June 27, 2014, Tables 2, 3, and 5 were updated to correct some incorrect values. The errors did not affect ...
ERR-160, November 26, 2013
The transmission of fuel prices to wholesale produce prices depends not only on distance from farm to sales point, but also on the transportation method, import shares and seasonality issues, and perishability.
FTS-356, July 26, 2013
Lighter cherry supplies in California and Washington State are supporting upward pressure on 2013 domestic cherry prices. Mix of hot and cold weather hindered early-season peach production from its full potential.
VGS-353, March 29, 2013
According to the California Processing Tomato Report, National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA, California tomato processors intend to contract 2.8 percent more processing tomatoes in 2013 than the previous year.
FTS-355, March 29, 2013
Total U.S. citrus production reduced in 2012/13 due to warm, dry winter. Forecast production at 11.4 million tons. The domestic all-orange crop is forecast 4 percent less than previous season at 8.7 million tons.
VGS-352, December 18, 2012
The 2012 U.S. dry bean crop is expected to reach 31.8 million cwt, an increase of almost 60 percent from low production levels of 2011.
FTS-354, December 18, 2012
Forecast total citrus production to remain stable in 2012/13 at 11.75 million tons. United States all-orange forecast harvest remains unchanged from last season at 9.01 million tons, with declines in Florida navel production negated by gains in Florida Valencia production. Tangerines are forecast 2...
VGS-351, September 27, 2012
Use of chickpeas (garbanzo beans) has increased in the United States as consumption of food such as humus expands. I n 2012, a record 196,900 acres were planted with Washington, Idaho, and California leading producers in the previous year.
FTS-353, September 27, 2012
Multiple spring freezes and summer’s high temperatures and dry conditions hampered progress of many fruit crops across the country, affecting growing regions or areas at different magnitude levels. Forecast smaller U.S. apple, pear, and grape crops this year will likely boost their prices during th...
VGS-350, June 28, 2012
Prices at the point of first sale remain low for most fresh-market vegetables and
consumer prices also fell in the first 5 months of 2012. Volumes are strong as mild
winter and early spring temperatures allowed early planting in many areas. Per capita use
of fresh-market vegetables fell less than 1 ...
FTS-352, June 28, 2012
This season’s Southern Hemisphere blueberry shipments to the United States (primarily from Chile) have already ended and sourcing has now transitioned to domestic production. Current domestic pricing for fresh blueberries is above last year’s, caused by an early finish to Chilean shipments this wint...
VGS-349, March 30, 2012
Fresh-market vegetable supplies remain strong, pushing prices lower for most crops.
Market impacts from an early-year freeze in parts of Florida were minimal as production
was still largely in southern parts of the State. In 2011 (the first year of data availability)
organic fresh vegetable exports ...
VGS-346, August 25, 2011
The farm value of all mushroom (Agaricus and others) sales during the 2010/11 crop
year (July-June) reached a new high of $1 billion, up 8 percent from a year earlier. Partly
reflecting modest gains in the economy, mushroom sales volume rose 9 percent to 862
million pounds, the second highest level ...
VGS-342-02, February 10, 2011
This report highlights the anticipated consequences of the 2008 Farm Act’s Planting Transferability Pilot Program (PTPP) on processing (pickling) cucumber plantings. PTPP allows program crop growers in seven Upper Midwestern States to reduce base acres and plant select vegetables for processing on t...
VGS-342-01, February 03, 2011
This report presents a financial snapshot of the U.S. vegetable and melon farms by region and farm size over three 3-year periods (1999-2007).
FTS-345-01, December 16, 2010
This report provides an overview of performance, advantages, and challenges of the Peruvian fruits and vegetables export industry. Three commodity case studies—asparagus, processed artichokes, and table grapes—highlight different degrees of competition with U.S. industries and impacts on U.S. grower...
Amber Waves, December 01, 2010
Reduction in the supply of workers that could make agricultural labor more expensive for the U.S. fruit and vegetable industry may impact industry competitiveness, but the effects would vary by commodity.
VGS-341-01, December 01, 2010
This report examines the significance of dry bean trade to the member countries of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), provides a detailed understanding of supply, demand, and policy in the U.S. and Mexican dry bean sectors, and considers the outlook for these industries.
ERR-106, November 12, 2010
Over a third of U.S. nonmetropolitan counties lost at least 10 percent of their population through net outmigration during the past two decades. ERS compares characteristics of such counties with other nonmetro counties.
AP-050, November 10, 2010
The Senate Report 111-039 accompanying S. 1406, the 2010 Agriculture Appropriations Bill, requested that the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Economic Research Service (ERS) prepare and publish a report regarding consumer perceptions of canned fruits and vegetables. In the absence of consumer...
EIB-58, September 30, 2009
Organic foods now occupy prominent shelf space in the produce and dairy aisles of most mainstream U.S. food retailers. The marketing boom has pushed retail sales of organic foods up to $21.1 billion in 2008 from $3.6 billion in 1997. U.S. organic-industry growth is evident in an expanding number of ...
VGS-333-01, August 19, 2009
Growth over time in the demand for fresh vegetables for at-home consumption may slow because of differences in the behavior of younger and older birth cohorts. A birth cohort includes people born in the same year and is similar in concept to a generation. People born around the same point in history...
EIB-55, June 03, 2009
Consumer demand for organic products has widened over the last decade. While new producers have emerged to help meet demand, market participants report that a supply squeeze is constraining growth for both individual firms and the organic sector overall. Partly in response to shortages in organic su...
WRS-09-03, March 31, 2009
Implementation of the agricultural provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has drawn to a close. In 2008, the last of NAFTA’s transitional restrictions governing U.S.-Mexico and Canada-Mexico agricultural trade were removed, concluding a 14-year project in which the member coun...
EIB-44, March 20, 2009
Using new national estimates of supermarket food loss, ERS updates each fresh fruit, vegetable, meat, and poultry commodity in its Loss-Adjusted Food Availability data series.
VGS-329-01, October 27, 2008
Rapid growth in the organic foods market has placed great pressure on farmers and handlers in the U.S. organic sector. Handlers are firms that produce, process, and distribute organic food. As the middlemen in the supply chain, organic handlers have been unable at times to provide as much of their f...
AP-032, September 12, 2008
In response to Senate Report 110-134, accompanying S. 1859, the 2008 the Agriculture Appropriations Bill, ERS researchers published a report about consumer perceptions and consumption of canned fruits and vegetables using USDA’s food consumption survey data, Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Consumer Expe...
VGS-328-01, September 09, 2008
Vegetable and melon production requires a substantial investment in production inputs. Using data from USDA’s Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS), this article presents and explores the major expense components of specialized U.S. and regional vegetable and melon farms during 1998-2006. T...
ERR-60, July 11, 2008
ERS examines the size, importance, and composition of the hired farmworker force, updating information published in 2000. These workers make up a third of the farm labor
ERR-58, May 30, 2008
Acreage for dry peas and lentils has increased since passage of the 2002 Farm Act. ERS examines the role of the Act’s marketing loans in the increase, and the trade impacts.
EIB-33, March 28, 2008
ERS investigates trends in U.S. food consumption from 1970 to 2005. Results suggest many Americans still fall short of Federal dietary recommendations for whole grains, lower fat dairy products, and fruits and vegetables.
FTS-32801, September 10, 2007
U.S. imports of fresh fruit and vegetables have increased substantially, particularly since the 1990s. Dominant suppliers are the North American Free Trade Agreement region for fresh vegetables, the Southern Hemisphere countries for off-season fresh fruit, and equatorial countries for bananas. The s...
FAU-123, June 29, 2007
U.S. agricultural exports reached a record in fiscal 2006 at $68.7 billion, some $6.2 billion higher than the record set in fiscal 2005. California, Iowa, Texas, and Illinois continued their reign as top exporting States, while Minnesota dropped to seventh position behind Nebraska and Kansas. North ...
VGS-31901, March 06, 2007
Carrots are one of the most popular vegetables in the United States and fresh-market carrot consumption has been increasing over the past few decades. Using a combination of ACNielsen Homescan panel data and USDA’s Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, this article examines where and how...
Amber Waves, February 01, 2007
A recent World Trade Organization challenge to U.S. commodity programs has created pressure to eliminate fruit and vegetable planting restrictions on farms that plant program crops. If planting restrictions were relaxed, overall market effects would likely be limited, with the greatest effects in C...
ERR-31, November 20, 2006
To help Americans meet nutritional requirements while staying within caloric recommendations, the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans encourage consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole-grain products, and fat-free or low-fat milk or milk products. This report provides one view of the potential imp...
ERR-24, August 15, 2006
ERS estimates the share of retail food prices farmers earn on two commodity groups—fruits and vegetables. While the farm share has been shrinking, the decrease is less than previously believed.
VGS-314, April 20, 2006
In 2005, per capita use (also known as disappearance or consumption) of all vegetables and melons declined 1 percent to 444 pounds. Disappearance of all vegetables and melons
totaled 131 billion pounds in 2005, compared with 120 billion pounds a decade earlier. Per capita use of fresh market vegetab...
VGS-31301, April 17, 2006
This report describes the economic characteristics of the U.S. fruit and vegetable industry, providing supply, demand, and policy background for an industry that accounts for nearly a third of U.S. crop cash receipts and a fifth of U.S. agricultural exports.
FTS-32001, February 14, 2006
China has raised its profile in global fruit and vegetable markets, with the value of its exports during 2002-04 more than double the value from a decade earlier. Most of China's exports are processed fruits and vegetables that do not yet pose a serious challenge to U.S. exports. However, China's fr...
VGS-312, December 16, 2005
With total 2005 potato production down 7.5 percent, the January-October price received by growers/shippers/packers for fresh-market potatoes averaged $9.27 per cwt, 25 percent above the average received during the first 10 months of 2004. By contrast, prices for
processing potatoes (which largely mo...
VGS-30801, May 27, 2005
Price premiums for organic products have contributed to growth in certified organic farmland and, ultimately, market expansion. Fresh produce has long been an important component of the organic food sector, and a significant contributor to the organic industry's growth over the last decade. This art...
Amber Waves, April 01, 2005
This article documents the evolution of the North American greenhouse tomato industry in all three countries—the United states, Canada, and Mexico.
ERR-2, April 01, 2005
The North American greenhouse tomato industry has grown rapidly since the early 1990s and now plays a major role in the fresh tomato industry. ERS looked at consumption and price trends, competition from Mexico and Canada, and the rising industry’s effect on the entire fresh field tomato sector.
AIB-792-7, November 12, 2004
Rising income, higher educational attainment, improved diet and health knowledge, more frequent eating out, and a growing population that will become older and more diverse in race and ethnicity are all shaping U.S. agricultural consumption. These effects are analyzed using data from the 1994-96 and...
AIB-792-6, November 12, 2004
National data on the diets of U.S. children and adolescents indicate they are consuming more fat and saturated fat than recommended while their intakes of fruits and vegetables fall well below recommended levels.
AIB-792-5, November 12, 2004
Both public and private organizations have noted that Americans generally eat less fruits and vegetables than is recommended in the Food Guide Pyramid. For example, the Produce for Better Health Foundation found that only 38 percent of Americans consume the recommended number of servings of vegetabl...
AIB-792-4, November 12, 2004
Many Americans do not consume the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables. Almost half of Americans think eating more fruits and vegetables would make their diets healthier, so why don't they? One argument is that fruits and vegetables are expensive, especially when purchased fresh. According to...
AIB-792-3, November 12, 2004
The USDA encourages people to eat a variety of fruits and vegetables through the Food Guide Pyramid and participation in the National 5-A-Day Partnership. A varied diet helps ensure a complete mix of nutrients, and a lack of variety in vegetable consumption has been further linked to the incidence o...
AIB-792-2, November 12, 2004
For good health, USDA urges American consumers to eat more fruits and vegetables-5 to 9 servings per day-and to choose a healthier, more varied mix of these foods. The variety of produce available to Americans has blossomed in recent years, but are consumers responding? The first step in determining...
AIB-792-1, November 12, 2004
Nutritionists recommend a variety of vegetables, including regular servings of deep-yellow and dark-green vegetables prepared with limited amounts of fats and sugars. In contrast, the most popular vegetable choice of most Americans is fried potatoes.
AIB-792, November 04, 2004
Contrary to assumptions that fruits and vegetables are expensive, especially when purchased fresh, a consumer can meet daily recommendation of three servings of fruits and four servings of vegetables for 64 cents.
AIB-790, July 20, 2004
This analysis uses ACNielsen Homescan data on 1999 household food purchases from all types of retail outlets to estimate an annual retail price per pound and per serving for 69 forms of fruits and 85 forms of vegetables. Among the forms we priced, more than half were estimated to cost 25 cents or le...
WRS-0406, June 01, 2004
International trade in fruits and vegetables has expanded at a higher rate than trade in other agricultural commodities, particularly since the 1980s. Not only has world trade in fruits and vegetables gained prominence, but the variety of commodities has expanded. Over the years, three regions—the E...
WRS-04-02, January 23, 2004
This report examines the economic rationale behind the various claims about the effects of mandatory country-of-origin labeling, thereby identifying the most likely outcomes. Profits motivate firms to innovate and introduce thousands of new food products each year to satisfy consumers' demand. Yet, ...
VGS-300-01, January 20, 2004
U.S. fresh-market spinach consumption has been increasing over the past few decades. Basic knowledge of the distribution of spinach consumption across different market channels, geographic regions, and population groups has been very limited in the past. Using data from USDA's 1994-96 and 1998 Conti...
VGS-300, December 18, 2003
Total potato production for the 2003 crop year is forecast at 457 million cwt—down less than 1 percent from 2002. Despite the slight drop in production, however, U.S. grower prices for all potatoes have averaged 19 percent below a year ago and 14 percent below 2
years ago for the September - Novembe...
AER-825, September 23, 2003
Retail consolidation, technological change in production and marketing, and growing consumer demand have altered the traditional market relationships between producers, wholesalers, and retailers.
VGS-297, June 20, 2003
Per capita consumption of all vegetables and melons (on a fresh-equivalent basis) is expected to increase 1 percent to 445 pounds in 2003--up about 6 pounds from 2002. Gains are expected to be spread across fresh and processing items, led by potatoes,
tomatoes, and sweet corn. In 2002, per capita ve...
VGS-295-01, March 31, 2003
U.S. mushroom consumption has been increasing over the past several decades. Basic knowledge of the distribution of mushroom consumption across different market channels, geographic regions, and population groups has been very limited in the past. Using data from USDA's 1994-96 and 1998 Continuing S...
VGS-295, February 25, 2003
Planted area for spring-season onions is expected to decline 12 percent to 34,400 acres. Plantings are down in three of the four reporting States with Texas (down 23 percent) expecting the largest decline. Although area planted is forecast lower, production could exceed the short 2002 crop of 9.7 mi...
VGS-292, August 22, 2002
The first estimate for the 2002 dry edible bean crop indicates a 39-percent increase from a year ago. Harvested area and per-acre yields are both expected to increase. U.S. dry edible
bean growers reacted to depleted stocks and the highest prices in a decade by increasing area for harvest to 1.69 mi...
VGS-290, April 18, 2002
According to preliminary ERS estimates, per capita vegetable and melon use (consumption) declined 1 percent in 2001 to 448 pounds. Fresh-market use (excluding potatoes) was unchanged at 173 pounds while freezing (down 1 percent) and canning (down 3 percent) use were lower. Per capita use of potatoes...
VGS-288, December 14, 2001
The November 2001 estimate of U.S. fall-season potato production is 401 million hundredweight (cwt). When added to the winter, spring, and summer potato crops, this places total production for the 2001 crop year at 442 million cwt, 14 percent below a year ago. In response to reduced production, U.S....
VGS-285, August 21, 2001
This summer (largely July-September 2001), fresh-market vegetable and melon area for harvest is forecast to rise 2 percent from a year ago. Increased acreage is a reflection of stronger grower prices since last summer. California, accounting for 50 percent of this year’s summer-season area, increase...
AIB-767, May 01, 2001
This report investigates how retail consolidation, changes in technology, and increased consumer demand for convenience, product diversity, and year-round availability have all influenced shipper-retailer relations in the lettuce and fresh-cut vegetable industries.
AIB-709, July 03, 1995
On both a volume and value basis, the United States is the world's largest spice importer and consumer, with both imports and consumption on an uptrend for the past 10 years. While the United States imports more than 40 separate spices, seven of these (vanilla beans, black and white pepper, capsicum...