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RCS-14D, April 11, 2014
The April 2014 outlook for both the U.S. and global rice markets is analyzed based on the latest projections contained in USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Use Estimates report.
RCS-14C, March 12, 2014
The March 2014 outlook for both the U.S. and global rice markets is analyzed based on the latest projections contained in USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Use Estimates report.
Amber Waves, March 03, 2014
India passed the National Food Security Act in 2013 to implement reforms in the distribution of subsidized food modeled after reforms made earlier in the State of Chhattisgarh. There have been significant gains in food security in Chhattisgarh, but impacts at the national level are uncertain.
AES-81, February 20, 2014
The February 2014 quarterly USDA forecasts for agricultural trade in the United States in FY 2014 are presented and discussed in this report.
RCS-14B, February 12, 2014
The February 2014 outlook for both the U.S. and global rice markets is analyzed based on the latest projections contained in USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Use Estimates report.
LDPM-235, January 16, 2014
The Livestock, Dairy, & Poultry Outlook for January 2014 describes events and outlook based on projections from USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Use Estimates Report for beef, pork, poultry, and dairy production and trade.

Errata: On January 17th, the January 2014 Livestock, Dair...

TB-1937, January 16, 2014
Cross-price elasticities are updated from the World Bank’s 2005 International Comparison Program (ICP) data for nine major consumption categories across 144 countries in this report. The consumption categories are: Food, beverage and tobacco; clothing and footwear; housing; house furnishings and ope...
LDPM-234, December 16, 2013
Exports and Demand Dynamics Provide Price Support.
AES-80, December 02, 2013
USDA has revised its forecasts for fiscal 2014 agricultural trade. Exports are now expected to fall $3.9 billion from fiscal 2013's record, to $137 billion. Imports are expected to rise $5.7 billion from fiscal 2013, to a new record: $110 billion. Compared with the last forecast in August, the new f...
LDPM-233, November 15, 2013
Lower feed grain prices improve margins.
Amber Waves, October 24, 2013
As Chinese officials expanded support for agriculture, they began to rely on raising price supports to maintain net returns to farmers. China became the largest market for U.S. agricultural exports as its rising prices eroded the relative competitiveness of Chinese commodities.
WHS-13I-01, October 23, 2013
Afghanistan is among the world’s largest importers of flour. This report analyzes the impact of policy interventions aimed at protecting Afghanistan’s wheat milling and farming sectors on the country’s growth prospects for flour production and imports, as well as their potential impacts on consumer...
EIB-118, September 30, 2013
Three recent studies provide cost-of-foodborne-illness estimates ranging from $14.1 billion to $152 billion. This report shows that differences in these estimates are largely due to the number of diseases considered, the valuation methods used, and uncertainty about disease incidence estimates.
LDPM-231, September 18, 2013
Corn-Belt Dryness Tweaks Meat Sectors.
AP-062, September 16, 2013
This collection of nine charts and maps presents essential information on the farm sector, food spending and prices, food security, rural communities, and the interaction of agriculture and natural resources.
AES-79, August 29, 2013
This outlook report offers, on a quarterly basis, the U.S. agricultural import and export outlook, as well as the year-to-date value and volume of U.S. agricultural exports and imports, by commodity and region.
LDPM-230, August 16, 2013
2013 meat and poultry forecast increases year over year.
ERR-153, August 05, 2013
This report examines China’s expanding program of domestic agricultural support that has raised concerns among trading partners.
Amber Waves, August 05, 2013
According to USDA’s baseline projections, developing country demand for agricultural products is expected to increase faster than their production in 2013-22. Thus, these countries will account for 92 percent of the total increase in world meat imports, 92 percent of the increase in world grains an...
LDPM-229, July 17, 2013
Meat and poultry higher in second half 2013.
GFA-24, June 27, 2013
Food insecurity in the 76 low- and middle-income countries examined in this report is expected to remain virtually unchanged between 2012 and 2013. By 2023, however, the number of food-insecure people is projected to increase nearly 23 percent to 868 million, with the share of the population that i...
LDPM-228, June 18, 2013
Livestock Imports Lower Into 2014.
RCS-13F, June 14, 2013
The June 2013 Rice Situation & Outlook report will contain projections for the 2013/14 U.S. and global rice markets. The report is done 12 times a year and relies on the most current World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates.
AES-78, May 30, 2013
This outlook report offers, on a quarterly basis, the U.S. agricultural import and export outlook, as well as the year-to-date value and volume of U.S. agricultural exports and imports, by commodity and region.
Amber Waves, May 20, 2013
Initial indications suggest continued expansion of U.S. corn and soybean acres at the expense of rice and cotton. Factors behind the acreage shift include growing U.S. ethanol production, rising demand in China for U.S. soybeans, and new competition for U.S. wheat from Black Sea wheat exporters.
Amber Waves, May 06, 2013
Agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa has been rising gradually since the 1980s. Agricultural research has spurred adoption of new technologies and has been a major driver of higher productivity in Sub-Saharan African agriculture. Despite these gains, productivity growth in the region rem...
LDPM-226, April 16, 2013
Lower corn prices may boost expansion for livestock.
Amber Waves, April 09, 2013
The U.S has embarked on negotiations to create a Trans-Pacific Partnership and a comprehensive trans-Atlantic agreement with the EU that will liberalize and promote trade. The U.S. horticulture industry has an interest in the outcome of both negotiations, as fruit and vegetable trade continues to be...
Amber Waves, February 21, 2013
Southeast Asia's rice surplus of exports over imports has grown steadily over the past decade. Despite slower production growth in the region, USDA projects that the surplus will remain large over the next decade because rice consumption in Southeast Asia is expected to increase at a slower rate.
LDPM-224, February 14, 2013
Cattle herd rebuilding was thrown a curve in 2012. Drought and weather conditions will determine inventory dynamics in 2013.
LDPM-223, January 17, 2013
With the new year continues the same drought as well and its continued negative impacts on the cattle sector.
EIB-106, January 15, 2013
This paper discusses the mechanisms by which water is allocated between agriculture and energy in Central Asia and presents scenario results that simulate the impacts on production and trade.
RCS-12l-01, December 31, 2012
Southeast Asia dominates the world’s rice trade as the leading source of rice exports and the second-largest importing region. This region’s rice surplus of exports over imports has grown steadily over the past decade and the USDA projects that it will remain large over the next decade.
OCS-12L, December 12, 2012
ERS -- working closely with the World Agricultural Outlook Board, the Foreign Agricultural Service, and other USDA agencies -- conducts market analysis and provides short- and long-term projections of U.S. and world agricultural production, consumption, and trade.
RCS-12L, December 12, 2012
The outlook for both the U.S. and global rice markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Use Estimates report.
AES-76, November 29, 2012
This outlook report offers, on a quarterly basis, the U.S. agricultural import and export outlook, as well as the year-to-date value and volume of U.S. agricultural exports and imports, by commodity and region.
ERR-142, November 27, 2012
Certain specialty crops produced in other countries have gained better access to U.S. markets since 2007, when USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service changed its regulatory protocols for phytosanitary (plant health) concerns. One treatment option allowed under the 2007 protocols is irradi...
LDPM-221, November 16, 2012
Meat production is trimmed in 2013.
LDPM-220, October 17, 2012
Ample supplies of pork and poultry moderate prices.
OCS-12J, October 12, 2012
ERS--working closely with the World Agricultural Outlook Board, the Foreign Agricultural Service, and other USDA agencies--conducts market analysis and provides short- and long-term projections of U.S. and world agricultural production, consumption, and trade.
FTS-353, September 27, 2012
Adverse weather is behind the forecast smaller U.S. apple, pear, and grape crops in 2012.
Amber Waves, September 20, 2012
Total factor productivity in agriculture is showing rapid growth at the global level led by improved performance in China and Brazil, although the global rate of growth in harvested yield for major grains and oilseeds has slowed. Agricultural productivity growth may be slowing in some countries and ...
Amber Waves, September 20, 2012
Growing food demand in developing countries, rising biofuel demand, and slowing agricultural productivity gains have put upward pressure on farm-commodity prices over the past decade. According to USDA’s annual baseline projections, these and other factors will continue to influence prospects for U...
LDPM-219, September 18, 2012
Impacts of high feed prices shake out across markets.
FDS-12i, September 14, 2012
Market analysis of domestic and international feed grain markets.
OCS-12i, September 13, 2012
ERS--working closely with the World Agricultural Outlook Board, the Foreign Agricultural Service, and other USDA agencies--conducts market analysis and provides short- and long-term projections of U.S. and world agricultural production, consumption, and trade.
RCS-12i, September 13, 2012
The outlook for both the U.S. and global rice markets is analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
LDPM-218, August 16, 2012
Drought-motivated increases in cow slaughter and feeder cattle movements have adversely affected all cattle and beef prices and plans to increase the national cow herd.
FDS-12H, August 14, 2012
Market analysis of domestic and international feed grain markets.
RCS-12h, August 13, 2012
The outlook for both the U.S. and global rice markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
ERR-138, August 09, 2012
Reciprocal trade agreements (RTAs), which grant special preferences to members, affect the pattern and volume of bilateral trade in global markets. This study uses the gravity framework and panel data depicting annual trade between 69 countries over 31 years to examine how 11 RTAs have shaped U.S. a...
TB-1933, July 18, 2012
This report documents the updated version of the Partial Equilibrium Agricultural Trade Simulation (PEATSim) model developed by USDA’s Economic Research Service. PEATSim is a global model, covering 31 commodities and 27 countries/regions. The model, consistent with economic theory, provides a fle...
LDPM-217, July 17, 2012
Beef/Cattle: Following on the heels of last year’s drought, this year’s lack of adequate rainfall over more than half of the United States has resulted in rapidly deteriorating crop and pasture conditions that have driven corn prices higher and cattle prices lower.
FDS-12G, July 13, 2012
U.S. feed grain supplies for 2012/13 are projected sharply lower this month with lower production for corn on lower yields. Extremely hot weather and drought result in a 20- bushel-per-acre decline in the projected corn yield to 146 bushels per acre reducing projected production to 13.0 billion b...
OCS-12G, July 12, 2012
ERS--working closely with the World Agricultural Outlook Board, the Foreign Agricultural Service, and other USDA agencies--conducts market analysis and provides short- and long-term projections of U.S. and world agricultural production, consumption, and trade.
RCS-12G, July 12, 2012
There were several major revisions to the 2012/13 U.S. rice balance sheet this month. On the supply side, the 2012/13 carryin was increased 5.0 million cwt to 34.5 million cwt. A higher area estimate raised the 2012/13 production forecast 8.0 million cwt to 191.0 million cwt. In contrast, 2012/13 im...
EIB-97, June 20, 2012
Indonesia’s food market has changed in response to a changing and growing economy. The report examines changes in the food consumption pattern and measures the growth of modern food retail chains, packaged food purchases, and food imports in the world’s fourth-most-populous country. The evidence sug...
Amber Waves, June 05, 2012
Policymakers are considering changes to U.S. immigration law that would affect the market for hired farm labor--including mandatory use of an Internet-based employment eligibility verification system and an expanded guestworker program for nonimmigrant, foreign-born agricultural workers.
AES-74, May 31, 2012
This outlook report offers, on a quarterly basis, the U.S. agricultural import and export outlook, as well as the year-to-date value and volume of U.S. agricultural exports and imports, by commodity and region.
ERR-133, May 30, 2012
This study provides a quantitative assessment of food security using a large household-level expenditure survey conducted by the Government of India during 2004/05. The analysis tests the impact of several key assumptions required to estimate actual calories consumed from the expenditure data. The a...
ERR-135, May 22, 2012
Large shifts in the supply of foreign-born, hired farm labor resulting from substantial changes in U.S. immigration laws or policies could have significant economic implications. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the U.S. economy is used to evaluate how changes in the supply of foreign...
WRS-1201, May 22, 2012
U.S. agriculture was better positioned than most United States industries entering the recession, was less affected by the recession than most other industries, and is well positioned to continue to do well as the economy recovers.
SSSM-270, May 08, 2012
The two primary determinants of U.S. sugar supply and use over the long-term projection period are the sugar and energy provisions of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (2008 Farm Act) and reliance on sugar imports from Mexico to maintain a balance in the U.S. sugar market.
SSSM-284, April 16, 2012
On March 30, 2012, the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) published Prospective Plantings, with forecasts included for planted-area intentions for the 2012/13 U.S. sugarbeet crop. Planted area is forecast at 1.241 million acres. While this amount is less than a percentage point above la...
SSSM-283, March 14, 2012
Based on revised analysis of data from the Comite Nacional Para El Desarrollo Sustentable de la Cana de Azucar (CNDSCA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) made corrections to its Mexico 2010/11 sugar supply and sweetener use from last month. Sugar for human consumption is estimated at 3.950 ...
SSSM-282, February 14, 2012
The Comite Nacional Para El Desarrollo Sustentable de la Cana de Azucar (CNDSCA) in Mexico recently published revised supply and use data for 2010/11 and the Secretariat of the Economy (Economia) released full marketing year data for sugar exports and imports. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (...
SSSM-281, January 18, 2012
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) projects 2011/12 sugar production in Mexico at 5.000 million metric tons (mt), a decrease of 330,000 mt from last month’s projection. The forecast is based on lower than expected harvest progress through January 7, 2012 and consequent implications for the...
WHS-11L-01, January 04, 2012
Given expected increases in demand, imports are likely to grow in coming years even if Afghanistan’s rapid post-1990 production growth is sustained, suggesting growing dependence on supplies from Pakistan and other countries.
EIB-90, December 30, 2011
Meeting growing global demand for food, fiber, and biofuel requires robust investment in agricultural research and development (R&D) from both public and private sectors. This report highlights the major findings of a study examining global R&D spending by private industry in seven agricultural inpu...
LDPM-210, December 15, 2011
Disproportionally large cow slaughter has kept average dressed weights lower during most of 2011 than if steers had constituted half or more of beef slaughter, as they typically do. Packer margins and high feed and feeder cattle prices are exerting downward pressure on fed cattle prices.
Amber Waves, December 09, 2011
The NAFTA governments are seeking more open trading relationships with non-NAFTA countries, such as China, Colombia, Panama, Japan, and South Korea, as well as increased commerce within the North American free-trade area.
Amber Waves, December 01, 2011
Brazil's ethanol industry has been aided by increased capacity to produce sugarcane as an ethanol feedstock, supportive government policies, and efficiency improvements. Other factors, however, may affect its ability to fill growing world demand for ethanol.
LDPM-209-01, November 21, 2011
The report describes the many uses for animal byproducts—both inedible and edible—and estimates the volume of production of beef and pork variety meats in the United States in addition to the proportion of value added to the live animal from the byproducts. The value added to U.S. meat trade and the...
LDPM-208, October 18, 2011
Drought-induced cow-herd liquidation has reduced average dressed weights and resulted in relatively more ground products but fewer middle cuts. Wheat pasture could be priced at a premium this winter. Cattle feeding margins remain negative despite higher fed cattle prices.
SSSM-277, September 15, 2011
On September 12, 2011, the USDA released its latest U.S. and Mexico sugar supply and use estimates for fiscal year (FY) 2011 and projections for FY 2012 in the World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report. For FY 2011, the USDA increased its estimate of tariff-rate quota (TRQ) short...
Amber Waves, September 01, 2011
Afghanistan is particularly vulnerable to food and fuel price shocks, which, in 2007/08, led to an increase in household food insecurity.
LDPM-206-01, August 22, 2011
This report characterizes Mexican feeder-calf and fed cattle production systems in the context of the imports of Mexican feeder cattle into the United States. The increase in cattle feeding in Mexico will increasingly affect U.S. feeder cattle imports and U.S. beef exports to Mexico in ambiguous way...
SSSM-276, August 16, 2011
On August 1, 2011, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) announced the Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 raw and refined sugar tariff-rate quotas (TRQs), an extension of the FY 2012 raw sugar TRQ time period, and an increase in the FY 2011 specialty sugar TRQ. The FY 2012 TRQ for raw cane sugar is set at 1,...
GFA-22, July 15, 2011
The number of food-insecure people in developing countries is estimated to decline about by 9 million, from 861 million in 2010 to 852 million in 2011 and the number is projected to decline by 16 percent, or nearly 140 million over the next decade. Food security in Asia and the Latin America and the...
ERR-121, July 12, 2011
To investigate the impact of rising staple food prices on household food security, we use a unique nationally representative household survey from Afghanistan, one of the world’s poorest, most food-insecure countries. The econometric framework allows us to control for household, district, and provin...
ERR-122, July 12, 2011
Over the past few decades, modern grocery retailing has been expanding rapidly in developing countries. The implications for food demand and trade are influenced by the extent to which modern food retailers focus primarily on growing preferences for nonprice characteristics, such as dietary diversit...
WRS-1103, June 28, 2011
The report describes the factors that have contributed to the large and rapid increase in agricultural prices during the past year. The report focuses particularly on food commodity prices—which have risen 60 percent since June 2010.
BIO-02, June 27, 2011
This report profiles and analyzes Brazil’s ethanol industry, providing information on the policy environment that enabled the development of feedstock and processing sectors, and discusses the various opportunities and challenges to face the industry over the next decade.
CWS-11d-01, June 17, 2011
This report identifies the factors contributing to the cycles in Brazil’s cotton production and exports that have made the country both an important market for U.S. cotton exports and now a competitor with U.S. cotton producers since 1990.
Amber Waves, June 16, 2011
Findings show FTAs increased trade among member countries, suggesting the large number of FTAs that do not include the U.S. may be eroding the U.S. presence in foreign markets.
SSSM-274, June 14, 2011
On May 19, 2011, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) released the World Production, Supply and Distribution (PSD) for centrifugal sugar. World exports are projected to increase 3.1 million metric tons raw value (MTRV) to 55.7 million MTRV in 2011/12. Significant export growth is expected in Br...
GFA-21-01, May 25, 2011
Rising global food commodity prices have again focused attention on agriculture and food security. This report is an update to the July 2010 report, Food Security Assessment, 2010-20; it reviews the impact of high global food commodity prices on food security in 2010 in 70 lower income countries usi...
SSSM-273, May 16, 2011
The Sugar and Sweetener Team of the Economic Research Service (ERS) makes calendar year estimates of total and per capita sweetener deliveries that are available for food and beverage consumption by U.S. consumers. U.S. sweetener deliveries for 2010 were 131.9 pounds per capita, up slightly fro...
WRS-1102, May 12, 2011
This report discusses Eurozone sovereign debt problems that began in 2010 and their potential consequences for the European Union (EU) and U.S. agriculture.
LDPM-202-1, April 26, 2011
This report outlines the tendency for fed cattle from the Southern Plains to typically sell at a premium over cattle from the Northern Central Plains, describing the nuances in regional production and marketing practices that underlie the price relationship referred to as “the North-South spread.”
ERR-113, April 12, 2011
The rapid increase in the number of bilateral and regional free-trade agreements since 1995 is a striking development. The proliferation of these agreements has raised questions about whether they have, in fact, opened markets, created trade, promoted economic growth, and/or distorted trade. This st...
SSSM-272, April 01, 2011
LMC International provides estimates of world sugar and high fructose syrup (HFS) costs of production. The data go back to 1979/80 and extend through 2009/10. Field, factory, and administrative costs are detailed for 35 beet producing countries and for 61 cane producing countries. HFS production c...
WRS-1101, March 31, 2011
This report is the last in USDA’s series of Congressionally mandated biennial reports on the impacts of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on U.S. agriculture and the rural economy. The report responds to a mandate in the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act of 1993. ...
TB-1929, March 22, 2011
In a 2003 report, International Evidence on Food Consumption Patterns, ERS economists estimated income and price elasticities of demand for broad consumption categories and food categories across 114 countries using 1996 International Comparison Program (ICP) data. This report updates that analysis ...
SSSM-271, March 15, 2011
Analysis of competitiveness in global sugar/sweetener markets is complicated by the fact that markets are generally characterized by domestic and trade-related policy distortions that make it difficult to discern the underlying competitive position of individual market participants.
SSSM-269, January 18, 2011
In the World Agricultural Demand and Supply Estimates (WASDE) released on January 12, 2011, projected U.S. sugar supply for fiscal year (FY) 2011 is decreased 88,000 short tons, raw value (STRV) from last month. Cane sugar production in Florida is reduced 100,000 STRV to 1.6 million STRV, based o...
FTS-345-01, December 16, 2010
This report provides an overview of performance, advantages, and challenges of the Peruvian fruits and vegetables export industry. Three commodity case studies—asparagus, processed artichokes, and table grapes—highlight different degrees of competition with U.S. industries and impacts on U.S. grower...
FDS-10k-01, December 09, 2010
Growth in corn dry-mill ethanol production has surged in the past several years, simultaneously creating a coproduct—distillers’ grains (DDGS). Many in the U.S. feed industry were concerned about the size of this new feed source and whether it could be used entirely by the feed industry, but they al...
VGS-341-01, December 01, 2010
This report examines the significance of dry bean trade to the member countries of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), provides a detailed understanding of supply, demand, and policy in the U.S. and Mexican dry bean sectors, and considers the outlook for these industries.
LDPM-196-01, November 18, 2010
This report characterizes Mexican beef cow-calf production systems in the context of the many issues affecting Mexican beef and cattle markets, including geo-climatic factors, disease and pest challenges, patterns of landownership, changes in export regions, and changes in domestic consumption as th...
ERR-106, November 12, 2010
Fruit and vegetable production is a labor-intensive process, and over half of the hired workers employed by growers are believed to be unauthorized immigrants. Reforms to immigration laws, if they reduce the labor supply, may increase the cost of farm labor. The authors of this report assess how par...
ERR-102, October 21, 2010
Achieving greater energy security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum is a goal of U.S. energy policy. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) calls for a Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS-2), which mandates that the United States increase the volume of biofuel that is blended int...
Amber Waves, September 01, 2010
Rising production costs and growing ethanol use in Brazil, combined with policy-induced production swings among Asian countries, are the main sources of higher and more volatile world sugar prices.
Amber Waves, September 01, 2010
The rate of growth in global agricultural productivity has accelerated in recent decades and accounts for an increasing share of expanding agricultural production.
GFA-21, July 08, 2010
Food security in 70 developing countries is estimated to have improved between 2009 and 2010, in part due to economic recovery in many of these countries. The number of food-insecure people in the developing countries analyzed by ERS researchers is estimated to decrease about 7.5 percent from 2009 t...
Amber Waves, June 01, 2010
The next decade is likely to see a major shift in global wheat production and trade. USDA projects that wheat exports by Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan will increase by 50 percent by 2019, and the region could lead the world in wheat exports by the end of the period.
WRS-10-01, May 17, 2010
This report evaluates the impact of Indonesia’s transition from a food-first focus to an export-oriented development strategy on its agricultural production, productivity growth, consumer food demand, and lifestyle. Shifting production and consumption patterns have led to improving agricultural trad...
WHS-10d01, May 03, 2010
This report analyzes the role imports have played in stabilizing Afghan wheat prices by mitigating the effects of shortfalls in domestic production and assesses whether Afghanistan’s internal wheat markets are sufficiently connected with international markets to cope with volatility in domestic outp...
SSSM-260-01, April 22, 2010
This report describes and analyses the current situation and outlook for supply, demand, and trade of sugar by India, the world’s second largest sugar producer. A decline in sugar production has shifted India from net exporter to net importer during 2009/10, contributing to a runup in global sugar p...
OCE-2010-1, February 11, 2010
This report provides longrun (10-year) projections for the agricultural sector through 2019. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices.
SSSM-258, February 10, 2010
In the February 2010 World Agriculture Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE), projected fiscal year (FY) 2010 production for Mexico is reduced 200,000 metric tons, raw value (MTRV) from last month based on weather-reduced sugar yields to date. Exports are reduced by the same amount. Projected FY 2010 ...
ERR-89, December 17, 2009
Agriculture is the largest source of employment in India, and food accounts for about half of consumer expenditures. Moving agricultural products from the farm to consumers more efficiently could result in large gains to producers, consumers, and India’s overall economy. This analysis uses a computa...
FDS-09k-01, December 14, 2009
China’s corn imports are minimal, even though it is using a growing proportion of its corn to produce starch, ethanol, and other industrial products. The corn-processing industry’s growth was encouraged by Chinese government policy, but the industry now has excess capacity. Many of the corn-based in...
SSS-256, October 05, 2009
The Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, as amended by the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, requires that sugar marketing allotments be in effect in fiscal year (FY) 2010. The act requires that the Overall Allotment Quantity (OAQ) be set at no less than 85 percent of the estimated quanti...
ERR-81, September 16, 2009
The United States bans imports of certain agricultural and wildlife goods that can carry pathogens or diseases or whose harvest can threaten wildlife stocks or endanger species. Despite these bans, contraband is regularly uncovered in inspections of cargo containers and in domestic markets. This stu...
ERR-80, September 09, 2009
This report analyzes recent structural changes in the world cotton industry and develops a statistical model that reflects current drivers of U.S. cotton prices. Legislative changes in 2008 authorized USDA to resume publishing cotton price forecasts for the first time in nearly 80 years. Systematic ...
WRS-09-05, August 20, 2009
The global economic crisis that started in late 2008 has led to a sharp curtailment of international trade, including a short-term decline in the value of global agricultural trade of around 20 percent. After slowing, global agricultural trade will continue to grow in the future. The crisis is leadi...
ERR-77, July 30, 2009
Developing countries, particularly those that depend heavily on a small number of agricultural exports, are vulnerable to domestic and international shocks. These countries often have difficulty achieving sustained economic growth. This analysis uses Malawi, a country that earns most of its foreign ...
ERR-76, July 15, 2009
Movements in countries’ exchange rates can substantially change the prices of goods faced by producers and consumers and thereby affect incentives to produce, consume, and trade goods. Exchange rate changes, however, might not be completely transmitted (passed through) to domestic prices. Empirical ...
EIB-52, July 07, 2009
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) increased attention to food imports from China is an indicator of safety concerns as imported food becomes more common in the United States. U.S. food imports from China more than tripled in value between 2001 and 2008. Addressing safety risks associated...
GFA-20, June 30, 2009
Food security in 70 developing countries is projected to deteriorate over the next decade, according to USDA’s Economic Research Service. After rising nearly 11 percent from 2007 to 2008, the number of food-insecure people in the developing countries analyzed by ERS researchers is estimated to rise ...
Amber Waves, June 01, 2009
The financial sector turbulence originating in the United States has had a ripple effect worldwide, curbing economic growth in nearly every country. Slower growth and weaker currencies in emerging markets have reduced U.S. competitiveness and agricultural exports in the short term. At the same time...
WRS-0904, May 15, 2009
During the 2000s, Russian agricultural imports have grown considerably, from $7 billion in 2000 to $33 billion in 2008. This import growth has made Russia the second largest agricultural importer among emerging markets, after China. The main reasons for the import rise are macroeconomic—high growth ...
RCS-09D-01, May 07, 2009
Global rice prices rose to record highs in the spring of 2008, with trading prices tripling from November 2007 to late April 2008. The price increase was not due to crop failure or a particularly tight global rice supply situation. Instead, trade restrictions by major suppliers, panic buying by seve...
EIB-51, April 07, 2009
Thirty years ago China began implementing a series of reforms to improve efficiency in agricultural production. Since then reforms have reshaped China’s agriculture and elevated its position in the world economy. This report provides an overview of current issues in China’s agricultural development,...
EIB-48, April 01, 2009
This book contains a sampling of recent ERS research illustrating the breadth of the Agency's research on current policy issues: from biofuels to food consumption to land conservation to patterns of trade for agricultural products.
WRS--09-02, March 30, 2009
The world economic crisis that began in 2008 has major consequences for U.S. agriculture. The weakening of global demand because of emerging recessions and declining economic growth result in reduced export demand and lower agricultural commodity prices, compared with those in 2008. These, in turn, ...
CWS-08i-01, March 03, 2009
New information about the role of recycling in the textile industry and updated estimates of efficiency in spinning lower estimates of the volume of cotton fiber exported by China in the form of textiles from those of an earlier study. China’s textile industry not only meets domestic demand of the w...
OCE-2009-1, February 12, 2009
This report provides longrun (10-year) projections for the agricultural sector through 2018. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices.
LDPM-175-01, February 10, 2009
U.S. imports and exports of red meats—beef, pork, lamb, and mutton—have expanded rapidly over the last several decades, linking livestock sectors of the United States to those of several major trading partners. Factors driving this trade growth include not only rising incomes, but also the preferenc...
ERR-71, February 05, 2009
Japan is a leading market for U.S. oranges. Since 1995, orange consumption in Japan has declined. This report summarizes an analysis of household survey data to assess various factors that may be related to the decline. Consumption of oranges in Japan differs markedly across generations, with younge...
AP-031, January 02, 2009
Among the many responsibilities of USDA are implementing the Food Stamp Program and other food and nutrition assistance programs; managing Federal forest land; implementing standards of humane care and treatment of animals; providing incentives for adopting wildlife habitat enhancements and other co...
WRS-0901, January 01, 2009
Colombia's sugarcane-based ethanol industry, after operating for only 3 years, is the second most developed in the Western Hemisphere. Most Colombian ethanol plants are energy self-sufficient and even generate surplus power that is sold to the national electric grid. Colombia's sugarcane-based ethan...
EB-11, September 19, 2008
Programs and policies to minimize the threat of, or mitigate the damages from, invasive species work best if designed in concert with each other. Whether program emphasis should be on prevention or control depends on the biological characteristics and size of the invasive species population, ecologi...
WRS-0801, July 23, 2008
World market prices for major food commodities such as grains and vegetable oils have risen sharply to historic highs of more than 60 percent above levels just 2 years ago. Many factors have contributed to the runup in food commodity prices. Some factors reflect trends of slower growth in production...
GFA-19, July 03, 2008
The number of food insecure people in the 70 lower income countries covered in this report rose between 2006 and 2007, from 849 million to 982 million. Food insecure people are those consuming less than the nutritional target of 2,100 calories per day. The food security situation of these countries ...
Amber Waves, June 01, 2008
Though China continues to be a major player in global food exports, growing resource constraints and environmental costs could mean an end to “easy” growth for Chinese agriculture.
Amber Waves, June 01, 2008
Despite strong criticism of the WTO, its membership continues to grow as countries seek the benefits of expanding trade.
SSSM -252, May 27, 2008
At the end of March 2008, the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) projected sugar beet acreage intentions for the 2008 crop year at 1.132 million acres, about 10.9 percent lower than 2007 crop year area planted. Assuming normal sucrose levels and continued improvement in productivity,...
FAU-124, April 18, 2008
U.S. agricultural trade generates employment, income, and purchasing power in both the farm and nonfarm sectors. Each farm export dollar earned stimulated another $1.65 in business activity in calendar year 2006. The $71.0 billion of agricultural exports in 2006 produced an additional $117.2 billion...
Amber Waves, April 01, 2008
Improvements to certification programs and traceability programs have helped expand beef exports from Argentina and Uruguay.
ERR-56, March 17, 2008
Using food expenditures and food sales data over 1990-2004, this report examines whether food consumption and delivery trends are converging across 47 high- and middle-income countries. Middle-income countries, such as China and Mexico, appear to be following trends in high-income countries, measure...
FTS-330-01, March 12, 2008
Japan is a large market for U.S. orange exports, and most of Japan’s orange consumption is supplied by U.S. exports. Orange consumption and imports grew until 1994, but have declined since. Demographic shifts are linked to changing orange consumption: older birth cohorts eat more oranges, and younge...
Amber Waves, February 01, 2008
Recent hikes in oil prices have raised serious concerns in low-income countries, both because of the financial burden of the higher energy import bill and potential constraints on imports of necessities like food and raw materials. Higher oil prices also have sparked energy security concerns worldwi...
Amber Waves, February 01, 2008
U.S. and international trends in food spending, food consumption, and food delivery systems. Across countries and income levels worldwide, consumers are choosing to spend their additional income on some combination of increased quality, convenience, and variety of foods. Food delivery and consumptio...
SSSM-251, January 29, 2008
The USDA requires accurate, unbiased sugar production forecasts for making the Department’s monthly market forecast used to mange the domestic sugar program. Sugar production forecasts from sugar beet and sugarcane processors are compiled by the Farm Service Agency (FSA) for publication in the Wo...
LDPM-15902, October 05, 2007
In 2003, outbreaks of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus had a major negative impact on the global poultry industry. Initially, import demand for both uncooked and cooked poultry declined substantially, due to consumers’ fear of contracting avian influenza by eating poultry meat...
FTS-32801, September 10, 2007
U.S. imports of fresh fruit and vegetables have increased substantially, particularly since the 1990s. Dominant suppliers are the North American Free Trade Agreement region for fresh vegetables, the Southern Hemisphere countries for off-season fresh fruit, and equatorial countries for bananas. The s...
ERR-46, September 04, 2007
After a decade of uneven export growth and rapidly growing imports, U.S. agriculture has begun to reassert its position in global trade markets. Rising exports and signs of moderating import demand are in marked contrast to previous trends. This report places recent changes in perspective by highlig...
WRS-0702, August 06, 2007
The volatile and upward trend in U.S. natural gas prices from 2000-06 has led to a 17-percent decline in the Nation’s annual aggregate supply of ammonia. During the period, U.S. ammonia production declined 44 percent, while U.S. ammonia imports increased 115 percent. Also, the share of U.S.-produced...
SSS-249-01, July 17, 2007
This report on the U.S. sugar sector places into context the challenges facing sugar producers, users, and policymakers in the United States, including description and analysis of farm-level production of U.S. sugar crops, cane and beet sugar processing and refining industries, imports and exports o...
FAU-123, June 29, 2007
U.S. agricultural exports reached a record in fiscal 2006 at $68.7 billion, some $6.2 billion higher than the record set in fiscal 2005. California, Iowa, Texas, and Illinois continued their reign as top exporting States, while Minnesota dropped to seventh position behind Nebraska and Kansas. North ...
GFA-18, June 28, 2007
The number of hungry people in the 70 lower income countries covered in this report rose between 2005 and 2006, from 804 million to 849 million. However, the food distribution gap—an indicator of food access—declined, which means that, although more people are vulnerable to food insecurity, the inte...
SSSM-249, June 04, 2007
Rising ethanol demand in global markets is driving the growth of Brazil’s sugar/ethanol complex with new investments in infrastructure and technology. The recent rise in crude oil prices, paired with a global effort for renewable energy development and a growing domestic demand for ethanol have b...
ERR-42, May 31, 2007
Major recent developments in the U.S. food system include the increasing presence of nontraditional grocery retailers, such as supercenters and drugstores, and competitive responses by traditional grocers, such as supermarket chains. These developments have contributed to sharp increases in concentr...
FDS-07D01, May 18, 2007
A large expansion in ethanol production is underway in the United States. Cellulosic sources of feedstocks for ethanol production hold some promise for the future, but the primary feedstock in the United States currently is corn. Market adjustments to this increased demand extend well beyond the cor...
TBS-262-01, May 11, 2007
U.S. tobacco product manufacturers use foreign-produced leaf in items such as cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco, and pipe tobacco. Imports peaked in the mid-1990s but remain at historically high levels. The popularity of generic cigarettes, which use cheaper imported leaf, along with increases in ...
ERR-41, May 03, 2007
During 1998-2002, India experienced record public surpluses of wheat and rice, sharply higher Government subsidy outlays, and declining per capita consumption. By 2006, despite continued high subsidies and sluggish domestic consumption, India developed a large wheat deficit. The pronounced market cy...
CWS-07B01, March 30, 2007
U.S. cotton growers, like producers of other agricultural commodities in recent years, have confronted pressures from market forces and the impacts of policy developments, both domestic and international. Most notably, the ending of the Multifiber Arrangement (MFA) sent a ripple effect throughout th...
FDS-07C01, March 30, 2007
The U.S. feed grain sector, largest of the major U.S. field crops, faces unprecedented demand conditions. The size and speed of the expanding use of corn by the ethanol industry is raising widespread issues throughout U.S. agriculture. Debate is ongoing over the use of grain for fuel instead of for ...
WRS-0701, March 29, 2007
Implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is drawing to a close. In 2008, the last of NAFTA’s transitional restrictions governing U.S.-Mexico and Canada-Mexico agricultural trade will be removed, concluding a 14-year project in which the member countries systematically disman...
OCE-2007-1, February 14, 2007
This report provides longrun (10-year) projections for the agricultural sector through 2016. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices.
ERR-32, January 04, 2007
As their incomes rise, Chinese consumers are changing their diets and demanding greater quality, convenience, and safety in food. Food expenditures grow faster than quantities purchased as income rises, suggesting that consumers with higher incomes purchase more expensive foods. The top-earning Chin...
LDPM-146-01, September 08, 2006
Uncertainty continues to shape the forecasts for animal products markets in 2006. Potential and actual animal disease outbreaks, consumer sensitivities, volatile exchange rates, and growing competition from producers in other countries cloud U.S. trade prospects for major meats. Loss of U.S. trade m...
GFA-17, May 31, 2006
In 2005, 777 million people were food insecure in 70 lower income countries studied in this report. On average, there has been a slight decline in the number of hungry people from 688 million in 1992-94 to 639 million in 2002-04. Both Asia and the Commonwealth of Independent States experienced a 30-...
SSSM-246, May 30, 2006
Mexico has been a significant producer, consumer, and exporter of sugar. Figure M1 shows trends and relationships between these variables since 1960. Sugar production has been steadily growing since 1960. Yearly production growth averaged 66,000 metric tons (mt) from 1960-74, and it averaged 81,0...
ERR-17, April 19, 2006
This report reviews recent developments in India's oilseed sector and assesses the implications of current and potential future policy reforms for the oilseed sector. Extensive policy intervention continues to affect oilseed production, trade, and processing in India. Findings suggest that India's c...
SSSM-245, January 31, 2006
The European Union’s (EU-25) sugar program has been scheduled for reform every five years for the last 40 years. However, its success in making sugar one of the most profitable crops in many EU countries has succeeded in delaying reform proposals until recently.
WRS-0601, January 11, 2006
China has substantially boosted lending to farmers and agribusinesses in recent years. The balance of loans to farmers doubled between 2001 and 2005. Loans for agribusinesses and rural infrastructure rose as well. Rural credit cooperatives and banks that lend to agriculture are being reformed and co...
FTS-31801, October 26, 2005
The World Trade Organization (WTO) ruled in June 2005 that Japan's phytosanitary protocol related to fire blight for imports of U.S. apples was not justified and was in breach of Japan's WTO commitments. In August 2005, Japan issued a new phytosanitary protocol that complies with the WTO ruling. Wit...
TBS-25901, September 30, 2005
U.S. tobacco product manufacturers use foreign-produced leaf in items such as cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco, and pipe tobacco. Imports peaked in the mid-1990s, but remain at historically high levels. The popularity of generic cigarettes-which use cheaper imported leaf-and increases in domestic...
LDPM-13401, August 24, 2005
This report provides a detailed description and analysis of Japan’s policies that support its milk producers and regulate dairy markets. Domestic supply controls boost the milk price, and government subsidies for producing manufacturing milk, for environmental improvements, and for hazard insurance ...
SSSM-243-01, August 19, 2005
U.S. consumption of sugars added to food items increased by 23 percent between 1985 and 1999. Although USDA data have documented the overall growth trend, not much has been inferred from USDA survey data. This article helps fill a gap by reporting findings for sweetener consumption by income and dem...
WRS-0505, August 12, 2005
Organic farmland and sales are rapidly growing worldwide, and the two largest markets are in the European Union (EU) and the United States. The two regions have adopted different policy approaches to organic agriculture. Many EU countries have "green payments" available for transitioning and continu...
CWS-05D01, June 02, 2005
India's prospects are changing now that the Multifiber Arrangement (MFA) no longer governs world textile trade. Decades of industrial policies that were both inward-oriented and biased toward small-scale production continue to influence India's textile trade prospects. While the recent introduction ...
LDPM-13101, May 26, 2005
The beef, pork, and poultry industries of Mexico, Canada, and the United States have tended to become more economically integrated over the past two decades. Sanitary barriers, which are designed to protect people and animals from diseases, are some of the most significant barriers to fuller integra...
WRS-0504, May 06, 2005
China's agricultural imports more than doubled between 2002 and 2004 due to surging demand for basic commodities, a more open trade regime, and tighter commodity supplies in the Chinese domestic market. U.S. agricultural exports to China jumped to a record $5.5 billion in 2004 due to dramatic growth...
GFA-16, April 28, 2005
Just over 1 billion people in the 70 low-income countries studied in this report are estimated to have consumed less than the recommended nutritional requirements in 2004. This marks an increase from more than 830 million in 2003. Over the coming decade, food security is projected to improve most si...
CWS-05C-01, April 15, 2005
The phaseout of the Multifiber Arrangement (MFA) and other forces are reshaping world textile and cotton markets. The elimination of the MFA is helping reduce clothing prices in the United States and the EU and effecting a shift in industrial demand for cotton to China, India, and Pakistan. At the s...
WRS-0503, April 15, 2005
Countercyclical assistance is the common thread among recent agricultural policy innovations of the United States, Mexico, and Canada. In other areas, the three countries are pursuing distinct agricultural policies, reflecting differing national objectives and economic contexts.
WRS-0502, February 22, 2005
In the 11 years since implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the agricultural sectors of Canada, Mexico, and the United States have become much more integrated. U.S. feedstuffs have facilitated a marked increase in Mexican meat production and consumption, and the importan...
WRS-0501, February 02, 2005
In 2004, China entered a new era in its approach to agricultural policy, as it began to subsidize rather than tax agriculture. China introduced direct subsidies to farmers, began to phase out its centuries-old agricultural tax, subsidized seed and machinery purchases, and increased spending on rural...
AER-840, February 01, 2005
This report examines global food trade patterns and the role of WTO market access rules in shaping the composition of global food trade.
AIB-794, February 01, 2005
This report describes how consumer preferences are driving changes in global food supply chains, including growth in private label sales and expansion of multinational retailers and manufacturers in developing countries.
LDPM-12501, November 24, 2004
About 8 percent of the hogs slaughtered in the United States in 2004 will originate in Canada—many more than 10 years ago. Canadian hogs have flowed into the United States in response to significant structural changes in the U.S. pork industry, concurrent with policy changes in Canada. This, combine...
WRS-0408, October 12, 2004
China's rapid economic growth has been driven by high rates of investment, gains in productivity, and liberalized foreign trade and investment. China's growth is likely to continue, but the Chinese economy faces some possibly unsustainable pressures.
AIB-747, August 13, 2004
These reports synthesize economic analyses of the complex relationships in food markets of interest to officials responsible for public policy, decisionmakers in the industry, and researchers. Topics addressed so far include the economizing practices of low-income households in making food purchases...
LDPM-120-01, July 01, 2004
Disease outbreaks and related trade restrictions have slowed previously expected high growth in many U.S. animal product exports, with U.S. beef exports most affected. This report discusses how animal diseases and disease-related trade restrictions have influenced trade in animal products in the pas...
WRS-0406, June 01, 2004
International trade in fruits and vegetables has expanded at a higher rate than trade in other agricultural commodities, particularly since the 1980s. Not only has world trade in fruits and vegetables gained prominence, but the variety of commodities has expanded. Over the years, three regions—the E...
AIB-789-4, February 28, 2004
This research summarizes three case studies of how trade in meat and poultry products can be affected by food safety concerns.
WRS-04-02, January 23, 2004
This report examines the economic rationale behind the various claims about the effects of mandatory country-of-origin labeling, thereby identifying the most likely outcomes. Profits motivate firms to innovate and introduce thousands of new food products each year to satisfy consumers' demand. Yet, ...
AER-828, November 07, 2003
This report examines the conceptual relationships between food safety and international trade and analyzes empirical examples from the meat and poultry, produce, food and animal feed crop, and seafood sectors.
WRS-0201, July 30, 2002
This report assesses the impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on U.S. agriculture and trade. It also contains sections on investment, employment, the environment, and transportation, as well as detailed commodity assessments of the impact of NAFTA on trade.
AER-813, July 01, 2002
The purpose of the report is to determine the potential for increased grain exports from Russia and Ukraine. The report reviews the evidence on the productivity of agricultural production, and explores some of the causes of inefficient practices. Results of the analyses show that implementing instit...
AIB-775, April 01, 2002
Assessment of issues that will affect China's future trends in consumption, production, import, and export of food and agricultural commodities. A series of 13 articles cover China's food consumption, marketing, international trade, agricultural policy, transportation infrastructure, regional divers...
WRS-013, December 28, 2001
This report identifies key factors underlying the agricultural productivity growth and enhanced international competitiveness of Brazil and Argentina in the past decade. Economic and policy reforms, infrastructure development, and enhanced use of agricultural inputs that drove output growth during t...
WRS-012, November 08, 2001
The Chinese grain sector faces pressure from both external competition and internal shifts in consumer preferences that could reshape the industry. The report focuses on the long-term expectations for China's agriculture in the face of continued growth and openness to trade.
AER-802, May 15, 2001
Agricultural trade barriers and producer subsidies inflict real costs, both on the countries that use these policies and on their trade partners. This report quantifies the costs of global agricultural distortions and the potential benefits of their full elimination. The report concludes that elimin...
AIB-765, April 23, 2001
Included here are a number of short multidisciplinary issue papers that address how food security in the United States and throughout the world is affected by issues like trade liberalization, income distribution, and natural resources. ERS research shows that more than 800 million people are hungry...
GFA-12, February 26, 2001
USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS) projects that average per capita food consumption for 67 low-income countries will increase in the next decade. ERS also projects that the number of people failing to meet their nutritional requirements will decline from 774 million in 2000 to 694 million in 20...
WRS-992, October 01, 1999
Provision for the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) was integral to the agreements that established the European Union (EU) and the CAP has been among the most important EU policies administered and funded in common. Revisions or " reforms " of the CAP have been numerous,in response to dramatic chang...
AER-767, August 01, 1998
This report provides baseline projections for international supply, demand, and trade for major agricultural commodities to 2007. It is a companion report to USDA Agricultural Baseline Projections, providing the foreign country details supporting those projections. Projections of strong global econo...
TB-1865, February 01, 1998
This report documents the modeling framework (European Simulation Model, ESIM) used to analyze the 1992 CAP reform and discusses possible effects of EU enlargement. Potential accession of a number of eastern and central European countries into the European Union (EU) seems destined to lead to furthe...
AER-758, January 01, 1998
Growth of U.S. agriculture is dependent on increases in productivity, three-fourths of which is accounted for by public investment in agricultural research and development (R&D) and infrastructure, according to this research. Productivity growth in U.S. agriculture benefits consumers by putting down...
AER-750, May 01, 1997
This report provides baseline projections for international supply, demand, and trade for major agricultural commodities to 2005. It is a companion report to Agricultural Baseline Projections to 2005, Reflecting the 1996 Farm Act (WAOB-97-1), providing the foreign country detail supporting those pro...
AIB-730, December 23, 1996
China's demand for grain is likely to outpace domestic supplies in the next 10 years, according to ERS projections. By the year 2005, China will become a net importer of 32 million metric tons of grain annually. In the last two decades, China's grain trade has expanded dramatically, both as a buyer ...
AER-734, September 11, 1996
More than 60 percent of U.S. agricultural exports in fiscal 1995 went to members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum (APEC). U.S. exports to APEC surged 23 percent over FY1994, reaching a record $33 billion. A new ERS study, APEC Agriculture and Trade: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation...
AER-741, August 01, 1996
Microbial pathogens in food cause an estimated 6.5-33 million cases of human illness and up to 9,000 deaths in the United States each year. Over 40 different foodborne microbial pathogens, including fungi, viruses, parasites, and bacteria, are believed to cause human illnesses. For six bacterial pat...
AER-739, July 01, 1996
The United States produces nearly 20 percent of the world's cotton and ranks second to China as the largest producing country. While over 80 countries produce cotton, the United States, China, India, Pakistan, and Uzbekistan (former Soviet republic) produce about 74 percent of the total world cotton...

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