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LDPM-238, April 15, 2014
The Livestock, Dairy, & Poultry Outlook for April 2014 describes events and outlook based on projections from USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Use Estimates Report for beef, pork, poultry, and dairy production and trade.
FDS-14D, April 11, 2014
The April 2014 Feed Grains Outlook report contains projections for the 2013/14 U.S. and global feed markets based on the most current World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates.
OCS-14D, April 11, 2014
The April 2014 Oil Crops Outlook analyzes the major changes and events in the world market for oilseeds and oilseed products.
WHS-14D, April 11, 2014
The April 2014 outlook for both the U.S. and global wheat markets is analyzed based on the latest projections contained in USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
Amber Waves, April 07, 2014
USDA anticipates that China’s soybean and corn imports will continue to rise, with soybean imports meeting nearly all soybean meal demand and imports accounting for about 10 percent of corn supplies by 2023. Meat imports are also projected to rise, but remain a small share of consumption.
LDPM-237, March 14, 2014
The Livestock, Dairy, & Poultry Outlook for March 2014 describes events and outlook based on projections from USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Use Estimates Report for beef, pork, poultry, and dairy production and trade.
FDS-14C, March 12, 2014
The March 2014 Feed Grains Outlook report contains projections for the 2013/14 U.S. and global feed markets based on the most current World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates.
OCS-14C, March 12, 2014
The March 2014 Oil Crops Outlook analyzes the major changes and events in the world market for oilseeds and oilseed products.
WHS-14C, March 12, 2014
The March 2014 outlook for both the U.S. and global wheat markets is analyzed based on the latest projections contained in USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
AES-81, February 20, 2014
The February 2014 quarterly USDA forecasts for agricultural trade in the United States in FY 2014 are presented and discussed in this report.
LDPM-236, February 14, 2014
The Livestock, Dairy, & Poultry Outlook for February 2014 describes events and outlook based on projections from USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Use Estimates Report for beef, pork, poultry, and dairy production and trade.
OCE-141, February 13, 2014
USDA’s 10-year projections for the food and agriculture sector cover major agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the U.S. farm sector, such as farm income.
FDS-14B, February 12, 2014
The February 2014 Feed Grains Outlook report contains projections for the 2013/14 U.S. and global feed markets based on the most current World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates.
OCS-14B, February 12, 2014
The February 2014 Oil Crops Outlook analyzes the major changes and events in the world market for oilseeds and oilseed products.
WHS-14B, February 12, 2014
The February 2014 outlook for both the U.S. and global wheat markets is analyzed based on the latest projections contained in USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
LDPM-235, January 16, 2014
The Livestock, Dairy, & Poultry Outlook for January 2014 describes events and outlook based on projections from USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Use Estimates Report for beef, pork, poultry, and dairy production and trade.

Errata: On January 17th, the January 2014 Livestock, Dair...

FDS-14A, January 14, 2014
The January 2014 Feed Grains Outlook report contains projections for the 2013/14 U.S. and global feed markets based on the most current World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates.

Errata: On January 16, 2014, Table 5 of the January 2014 Feed Outlook has been corrected to ...

OCS-14A, January 14, 2014
The January 2014 Oil Crops Outlook analyzes the major changes and events in the world market for oilseeds and oilseed products.
WHS-14A, January 14, 2014
The January 2014 outlook for both the U.S. and global wheat markets is analyzed based on the latest projections contained in USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
FDS-13L-01, December 30, 2013
From 2005 to 2011, wheat, corn, and soybean futures contracts were affected by growing discrepancies between expiring futures prices and cash prices--a problem known as non-convergence. In response, the futures exchanges modified their contracts to better reflect market conditions. Those modificati...
LDPM-234, December 16, 2013
Exports and Demand Dynamics Provide Price Support.
FDS-13L, December 12, 2013
Market analysis of domestic and international feed grain markets.
OCS-13L, December 12, 2013
Each month,the Oil Crops Outlook analyzes the major changes and events in the world market for oilseeds and oilseed products.
WHS-13L, December 12, 2013
The outlook for both the U.S. and global wheat markets is analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
AES-80, December 02, 2013
USDA has revised its forecasts for fiscal 2014 agricultural trade. Exports are now expected to fall $3.9 billion from fiscal 2013's record, to $137 billion. Imports are expected to rise $5.7 billion from fiscal 2013, to a new record: $110 billion. Compared with the last forecast in August, the new f...
LDPM-233, November 15, 2013
Lower feed grain prices improve margins.
OCS-13K, November 13, 2013
Each month the Oil Crops Outlook analyzes the major changes and events in the world market for oilseeds and oilseed products.
RCS-13K, November 13, 2013
The November 2013 Rice Situation & Outlook report will contain projections for the 2013/14 U.S. and global rice markets. The report is done 12 times a year and relies on the most current World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates.
WHS-13K, November 13, 2013
The outlook for both the U.S. and global wheat markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.

Errata: On November 27, 2013, this report was re-released with an updated Domestic Outlook section.

LDPM-231-01, November 08, 2013
The United States is the world’s second largest broiler meat exporter (after Brazil), and exports have become a valuable source of income for the U.S. broiler industry. This study examines the growth in broiler meat exports focusing on several major markets.
OCS-13I, September 16, 2013
Each month,the Oil Crops Outlook analyzes the major changes and events in the world market for oilseeds and oilseed products.
RCS-13I, September 16, 2013
The September 2013 Rice Situation & Outlook report will contain projections for the 2013/14 U.S. and global rice markets. The report is done 12 times a year and relies on the most current World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates.
WHS-13I, September 16, 2013
The outlook for both the U.S. and global wheat markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
AES-79, August 29, 2013
This outlook report offers, on a quarterly basis, the U.S. agricultural import and export outlook, as well as the year-to-date value and volume of U.S. agricultural exports and imports, by commodity and region.
OCS-13H, August 14, 2013
Each month,the Oil Crops Outlook analyzes the major changes and events in the world market for oilseeds and oilseed products.
WHS-13H, August 14, 2013
The outlook for both the U.S. and global wheat markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
Amber Waves, August 14, 2013
From 2005 to 2010, expiring corn, soybeans, and wheat futures contracts routinely settled at prices significantly higher than their cash market counterparts. Findings show that the observed non-convergence was an unintended consequence of market design rather than speculative trading.
Amber Waves, August 05, 2013
According to USDA’s baseline projections, developing country demand for agricultural products is expected to increase faster than their production in 2013-22. Thus, these countries will account for 92 percent of the total increase in world meat imports, 92 percent of the increase in world grains an...
FDS-13G-01, July 26, 2013
Weather during the growing season is critical for corn and soybean yields. Adjusting for weather in an analysis of historical U.S. corn and soybean yields is important for determining underlying trends and future yield expectations. Models for U.S. corn and soybean yields provide estimates of the ef...
FTS-356, July 26, 2013
Tight early cherry and peach supplies boosting early-summer prices.
OCS-13G, July 15, 2013
Each month, the Oil Crops Outlook analyzes the major changes and events in the world market for oilseeds and oilseed products.
WHS-13G, July 15, 2013
The outlook for both the U.S. and global wheat markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
FDS-13F, June 14, 2013
Market analysis of domestic and international feed grain markets. The June Feed Outlook report includes a special article entitled: "World Corn Use Expands Despite Rising Prices in 2012/13."
OCS-13-F, June 14, 2013
Each month,the Oil Crops Outlook analyzes the major changes and events in the world market for oilseeds and oilseed products.
WHS-13F, June 14, 2013
The outlook for both the U.S. and global wheat markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
SSSM-297-01, May 29, 2013
Brazil is the world’s leading sugar producer and, over the long term, world sugar prices are determined by production costs in Center/South Brazil, as well as the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the Brazilian real.
FDS-13E, May 14, 2013
Market analysis of domestic and international feed grain markets.
OCS-13E, May 14, 2013
Each month,the Oil Crops Outlook analyzes the major changes and events in the world market for oilseeds and oilseed products.
WHS-13E, May 14, 2013
The outlook for both the U.S. and global wheat markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
FDS-13D, April 12, 2013
This Feed Outlook report discusses market analysis of domestic and international feed grain markets, providing supporting and supplementary information related to USDA’s April 2013 World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates report. The April Feed Outlook also includes a special article discussi...
OCS-13D, April 12, 2013
Each month, the Oil Crops Outlook analyzes the major changes and events in the world market for oilseeds and oilseed products.
WHS-13D, April 12, 2013
The outlook for both the U.S. and global wheat markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
LDPM-21801, April 04, 2013
U.S. beef markets are undergoing rapid change as alternative production systems evolve in response to consumer demands and compete with conventional grain-fed beef production. Beef produced through distinguishable systems has different marketable attributes that may attract price premiums.
FTS-355, March 29, 2013
Warm, dry weather reduces total U.S. citrus production in 2012/13.
VGS-353, March 29, 2013
This issue covers basic supply, demand, price, and trade analysis for fresh market vegetables, processing vegetables, and potatoes. Features include a discussion of bell peppers, longrun outlook, Food Safety Modernization Act, and China's vegetable exports.
FDS-13c, March 12, 2013
Market analysis of domestic and international feed grain markets.
OCS-13C, March 12, 2013
Each month,the Oil Crops Outlook analyzes the major changes and events in the world market for oilseeds and oilseed products.
WHS-13c, March 12, 2013
The outlooks for both the U.S. and global wheat markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
Amber Waves, February 21, 2013
Southeast Asia's rice surplus of exports over imports has grown steadily over the past decade. Despite slower production growth in the region, USDA projects that the surplus will remain large over the next decade because rice consumption in Southeast Asia is expected to increase at a slower rate.
FDS-13B, February 12, 2013
Market analysis of domestic and international feed grain markets.
WHS-13b, February 12, 2013
The outlook for both the U.S. and global wheat markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
OCE-131, February 11, 2013
USDA's 10-year projections for the food and agriculture sector cover major agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the U.S. farm sector, such as farm income and food prices.
WHS-13A-01, February 04, 2013
During the 2000s, the three major grain-producing countries of the former Soviet Union--Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine (KRU)--became a large grain-exporting region. This report examines why this has happened and also provides the outlook for the region’s production and exports over the next 10 yea...
FDS-13A, January 15, 2013
Market analysis of domestic and international feed grain markets
OCS-13A, January 15, 2013
Each month, the Oil Crops Outlook analyzes the major changes and events in the world market for oilseeds and oilseed products.
WHS-13A, January 15, 2013
The outlook for both the U.S. and global wheat markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report
RCS-12l-01, December 31, 2012
Southeast Asia dominates the world’s rice trade as the leading source of rice exports and the second-largest importing region. This region’s rice surplus of exports over imports has grown steadily over the past decade and the USDA projects that it will remain large over the next decade.
FTS-354, December 18, 2012
Total citrus production forecast to remain stable in 2012/13.
VGS-352, December 18, 2012
This issue covers basic supply, demand, price, and trade analysis for fresh market vegetables, processing vegetables, dry beans, dry peas and lentils, and sweet potatoes. Features include a discussion how ERS forecasts retail vegetable prices and 2012 vegetable pricing.
FDS-12L, December 13, 2012
Market analysis of domestic and international feed grain markets.
WHS-12L, December 13, 2012
The outlook for both the U.S. and global wheat markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
FDS-12K, November 14, 2012
Market analysis of domestic and international feed grain markets.
WHS-12K, November 14, 2012
The outlook for both the U.S. and global wheat markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
RCS-12K, November 13, 2012
The outlook for both the U.S. and global rice markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
FDS-12J, October 15, 2012
Market analysis of domestic and international feed grain markets.
WHS-12J, October 15, 2012
The outlook for both the U.S. and global wheat markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates report.
RCS-12J, October 12, 2012
The outlook for both the U.S. and global rice markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
FTS-353, September 27, 2012
Adverse weather is behind the forecast smaller U.S. apple, pear, and grape crops in 2012.
VGS-351, September 27, 2012
The farm value of all mushrooms totaled a record $1.1 billion in the 2011/12 crop year.
SSSM-289, September 17, 2012
The Sugar and Sweetener Outlook reviews the sugar and sweetener outlook for the United States and Mexico, emphasizing changes made in the most recent month's edition of the World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report.
FDS-12i, September 14, 2012
Market analysis of domestic and international feed grain markets.
WHS-12i, September 14, 2012
The outlook for both the U.S. and global wheat markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
AES-75, August 30, 2012
This outlook report offers, on a quarterly basis, the U.S. agricultural import and export outlook, as well as the year-to-date value and volume of U.S. agricultural exports and imports, by commodity and region.
SSSM-288, August 15, 2012
The Sugar and Sweetener Outlook reviews the sugar and sweetener outlook for the United States and Mexico, emphasizing changes made in the most recent month’s edition of the World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report.
FDS-12H, August 14, 2012
Market analysis of domestic and international feed grain markets.
WHS-12H, August 14, 2012
The outlook for both the U.S. and global wheat markets are analyzed based on the latest projections contained in the World Agricultural Supply and Uses Estimates report.
SSSM-287, July 16, 2012
The Sugar and Sweetener Outlook reviews the sugar and sweetener outlook for the United States and Mexico, emphasizing changes made in the most recent month’s edition of the World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report.
FDS-12G, July 13, 2012
U.S. feed grain supplies for 2012/13 are projected sharply lower this month with lower production for corn on lower yields. Extremely hot weather and drought result in a 20- bushel-per-acre decline in the projected corn yield to 146 bushels per acre reducing projected production to 13.0 billion b...
FDS-12F-01, July 03, 2012
An early corn harvest—before the August 31 end of the previous marketing year—creates an overlap of supply-and-use data between the old and new marketing years that can alter the patterns of corn use and ending stocks, with implications for official USDA projections and estimates.
VGS-350, June 28, 2012
Prices at the point of first sale remain low for most fresh-market vegetables and consumer prices also fell in the first 5 months of 2012. Volumes are strong as mild winter and early spring temperatures allowed early planting in many areas. Per capita use of fresh-market vegetables fell less than...
Amber Waves, June 05, 2012
Although USDA’s WASDE report is viewed by commodity market observers as an important benchmark, the rise of private forecasting services has led some to question the usefulness of USDA’s role in commodity market reporting. ERS model results show that markets place substantial value on the situation ...
LDPM-213, March 15, 2012
Beef cow slaughter may be declining, and heifer retention to replace cows may be in early stages. Cattle feeding margins are improving for the short term, but packers are likely still seeing red. Retail prices may also be encountering some consumer resistance.
OCE-121, February 13, 2012
This report provides longrun (10-year) projections for the agricultural sector through 2021. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices.
WHS-11L-01, January 04, 2012
Given expected increases in demand, imports are likely to grow in coming years even if Afghanistan’s rapid post-1990 production growth is sustained, suggesting growing dependence on supplies from Pakistan and other countries.
EIB-84, October 12, 2011
The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 eliminates direct and countercyclical payments (DCP) and average crop revenue election program payments to farms with 10 or fewer base acres. This report examines the effects of the provision. Findings suggest that Federal budgetary savings from the pro...
EIB-81, September 14, 2011
In the past decade, hog production has increasingly become consolidated, with larger operations producing a greater volume of hog manure on smaller areas. With less cropland for spreading the manure, hog farmers may be compensating through more effective manure management. The authors use data from ...
Amber Waves, September 01, 2011
Food prices jumped in 2010-11, the second price spike within 3 years. Longer term financial, agricultural, and demographic trends, exacerbated by short-term production shortfalls, set up conditions for the increases.
FTS-347-01, July 25, 2011
This report uses data from USDA’s 2007 Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS) and other sources to examine trends in the U.S. apple sector and compare production and marketing characteristics under organic and conventional farming systems.
CWS-11d-01, June 17, 2011
This report identifies the factors contributing to the cycles in Brazil’s cotton production and exports that have made the country both an important market for U.S. cotton exports and now a competitor with U.S. cotton producers since 1990.
LDPM-202-1, April 26, 2011
This report outlines the tendency for fed cattle from the Southern Plains to typically sell at a premium over cattle from the Northern Central Plains, describing the nuances in regional production and marketing practices that underlie the price relationship referred to as “the North-South spread.”
RCS-11d-01, April 21, 2011
This report examines how the structure of the U.S. rice industry has evolved over the past two decades, including a reduction in the number of farms, increased average farm size, and the shifting concentration of rice production away from higher-cost production regions. The authors analyze the econo...
OCE-111, February 14, 2011
This report provides longrun (10-year) projections for the agricultural sector through 2020. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices.
VGS-342-02, February 10, 2011
This report highlights the anticipated consequences of the 2008 Farm Act’s Planting Transferability Pilot Program (PTPP) on processing (pickling) cucumber plantings. PTPP allows program crop growers in seven Upper Midwestern States to reduce base acres and plant select vegetables for processing on t...
VGS-342-01, February 03, 2011
This report presents a financial snapshot of the U.S. vegetable and melon farms by region and farm size over three 3-year periods (1999-2007).
FDS-10k-01, December 09, 2010
Growth in corn dry-mill ethanol production has surged in the past several years, simultaneously creating a coproduct—distillers’ grains (DDGS). Many in the U.S. feed industry were concerned about the size of this new feed source and whether it could be used entirely by the feed industry, but they al...
VGS-341-01, December 01, 2010
This report examines the significance of dry bean trade to the member countries of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), provides a detailed understanding of supply, demand, and policy in the U.S. and Mexican dry bean sectors, and considers the outlook for these industries.
ERR-106, November 12, 2010
Fruit and vegetable production is a labor-intensive process, and over half of the hired workers employed by growers are believed to be unauthorized immigrants. Reforms to immigration laws, if they reduce the labor supply, may increase the cost of farm labor. The authors of this report assess how par...
BIO-01-01, May 14, 2010
This report assesses the short-term outlook for production of next-generation biofuels and the near-term challenges facing the sector. Next-generation U.S. biofuel capacity should reach about 88 million gallons in 2010, thanks in large measure to one plant becoming commercially operational in 2010, ...
OCE-2010-1, February 11, 2010
This report provides longrun (10-year) projections for the agricultural sector through 2019. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices.
ERR-88, November 17, 2009
The livestock industry uses information on meat prices at different stages in the marketing system to make production decisions. When grocery stores began using electronic scanners to capture prices paid for meat, it was assumed that the livestock industry could capitalize on having these point-of-s...
EIB-50, March 31, 2009
In recent years, structural changes in the hog sector, including increased farm size and regional shifts in production, have altered manure management practices. Also, changes to the Clean Water Act, State regulations, and increasing local conflicts over air quality issues, including odor, have infl...
CWS-08i-01, March 03, 2009
New information about the role of recycling in the textile industry and updated estimates of efficiency in spinning lower estimates of the volume of cotton fiber exported by China in the form of textiles from those of an earlier study. China’s textile industry not only meets domestic demand of the w...
AR-33, February 13, 2009
U.S. prices of fertilizer nutrients began to rise steadily in 2002 and increased sharply to historic highs in 2008 due to the combined effects of a number of domestic and global long- and shortrun supply and demand factors. From 2007 to 2008, spring nitrogen prices increased by a third, phosphate pr...
OCE-2009-1, February 12, 2009
This report provides longrun (10-year) projections for the agricultural sector through 2018. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices.
TB-1924, February 12, 2009
The Economic Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) develops and publishes estimates and forecasts of three primary measures of income and returns for the U.S. farm economy: (1) net value added, or total value of the farm sector’s production of goods and services less purchase...
LDPM-175-01, February 10, 2009
U.S. imports and exports of red meats—beef, pork, lamb, and mutton—have expanded rapidly over the last several decades, linking livestock sectors of the United States to those of several major trading partners. Factors driving this trade growth include not only rising incomes, but also the preferenc...
OCE-2008-1, February 12, 2008
This report provides longrun (10-year) projections for the agricultural sector through 2017. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices.
SB-974, January 07, 2008
These reports examine how production costs vary among producers of different commodities. These reports include details on production practices and input use levels (i.e., the 'technology set'), as well as farm operator and structural characteristics that underlie the cost and return estimates. The ...
ERR-52, December 27, 2007
The increasing size and specialization of hog operations reflect structural change in U.S. swine production during the past 15 years. The number of farms with hogs has declined by over 70 percent, as hog enterprises have grown larger. Large operations that specialize in a single phase of production ...
WRS-0702, August 06, 2007
The volatile and upward trend in U.S. natural gas prices from 2000-06 has led to a 17-percent decline in the Nation’s annual aggregate supply of ammonia. During the period, U.S. ammonia production declined 44 percent, while U.S. ammonia imports increased 115 percent. Also, the share of U.S.-produced...
CWS-07B01, March 30, 2007
U.S. cotton growers, like producers of other agricultural commodities in recent years, have confronted pressures from market forces and the impacts of policy developments, both domestic and international. Most notably, the ending of the Multifiber Arrangement (MFA) sent a ripple effect throughout th...
FDS-07C01, March 30, 2007
The U.S. feed grain sector, largest of the major U.S. field crops, faces unprecedented demand conditions. The size and speed of the expanding use of corn by the ethanol industry is raising widespread issues throughout U.S. agriculture. Debate is ongoing over the use of grain for fuel instead of for ...
VGS-31901, March 06, 2007
Carrots are one of the most popular vegetables in the United States and fresh-market carrot consumption has been increasing over the past few decades. Using a combination of ACNielsen Homescan panel data and USDA’s Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, this article examines where and how...
LDPM-146-01, September 08, 2006
Uncertainty continues to shape the forecasts for animal products markets in 2006. Potential and actual animal disease outbreaks, consumer sensitivities, volatile exchange rates, and growing competition from producers in other countries cloud U.S. trade prospects for major meats. Loss of U.S. trade m...
ERR-16, February 22, 2006
This report examines issues related to modeling complex policy regimes that affect international dairy markets using a partial equilibrium, multiple-commodity, multiregion model of agricultural policy and trade. Average bound tariffs for dairy remain among the highest of all agricultural commodities...
TBS-25901, September 30, 2005
U.S. tobacco product manufacturers use foreign-produced leaf in items such as cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco, and pipe tobacco. Imports peaked in the mid-1990s, but remain at historically high levels. The popularity of generic cigarettes-which use cheaper imported leaf-and increases in domestic...
LDPM-13501, September 16, 2005
This study focuses on fed cattle markets to compare the mandatory price reporting system developed by USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service in 2001 with the previous voluntary reporting system. The study also evaluates whether the mandatory system has improved the amount and quality of information a...
LDPM-13401, August 24, 2005
This report provides a detailed description and analysis of Japan’s policies that support its milk producers and regulate dairy markets. Domestic supply controls boost the milk price, and government subsidies for producing manufacturing milk, for environmental improvements, and for hazard insurance ...
LDPM-13101, May 26, 2005
The beef, pork, and poultry industries of Mexico, Canada, and the United States have tended to become more economically integrated over the past two decades. Sanitary barriers, which are designed to protect people and animals from diseases, are some of the most significant barriers to fuller integra...
TBS-25801, May 13, 2005
Average net returns per acre were estimated to be negative for burley and flue-cured tobacco in 2003. Total economic costs for burley and flue-cured tobacco production likely rose in 2003 from 2002 due to higher costs for energy, labor, and quota rental rates. Cost estimates are computed using produ...
LDPM-13001, May 12, 2005
Pork ranks third in annual U.S. meat consumption, behind beef and chicken, averaging 51 pounds per person. The Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) indicates that most pork is consumed at home. Pork consumption is highest in the Midwest, followed by the South, the Northeast, and ...
AER-840, February 01, 2005
This report examines global food trade patterns and the role of WTO market access rules in shaping the composition of global food trade.
AER-835, November 08, 2004
This study addresses changes in the organization of the U.S. pork industry, most notably marketing contracts between packers and producers, by exploring their function in addressing pork quality concerns. A number of developments brought quality concerns to the forefront. These include health concer...
AIB-792, November 04, 2004
USDA's Food Guide Pyramid recommends 2-4 servings of fruit and 3-5 servings of vegetables daily. As a member of the 5-A-Day public-private partnership, USDA partners with other government agencies and private sector groups to promote the health benefits of fruits and vegetable. Yet consumption of th...
AER-837, November 01, 2004
Production and marketing contracts govern 36 percent of the value of U.S. agricultural production, up from 12 percent in 1969. Contracts are now the primary method of handling sales of many livestock commodities, including milk, hogs, and broilers, and of major crops such as sugar beets, fruit, and ...
AIB-790, July 20, 2004
This analysis uses ACNielsen Homescan data on 1999 household food purchases from all types of retail outlets to estimate an annual retail price per pound and per serving for 69 forms of fruits and 85 forms of vegetables. Among the forms we priced, more than half were estimated to cost 25 cents or le...
WRS-0406, June 01, 2004
International trade in fruits and vegetables has expanded at a higher rate than trade in other agricultural commodities, particularly since the 1980s. Not only has world trade in fruits and vegetables gained prominence, but the variety of commodities has expanded. Over the years, three regions—the E...
AER-831, April 01, 2004
Recent industry innovations improving the safety of the Nation's meat supply range from new pathogen tests, high-tech equipment, and supply chain management systems, to new surveillance networks. Despite these and other improvements, the market incentives that motivate private firms to invest in inn...
AIB-789-4, February 28, 2004
This research summarizes three case studies of how trade in meat and poultry products can be affected by food safety concerns.
AIB-789-5, February 28, 2004
This report examines how U.S. and other nations responded to foodborne illness outbreaks traced to internationally-traded food.
AIB-789-7, February 28, 2004
This research summarizes three case studies of how trade in seafood products can be affected by food safety concerns.
WAOB-2004-1, February 09, 2004
This report provides long-run (10-year) baseline projections for the agricultural sector through 2013. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices.
WRS-04-03, February 02, 2004
Poultry meat is the fastest growing component of global meat demand, and India, the world's second largest developing country, is experiencing rapid growth in its poultry sector. In India, poultry sector growth is being driven by rising incomes and a rapidly expanding middle class, together with the...
WRS-04-02, January 23, 2004
This report examines the economic rationale behind the various claims about the effects of mandatory country-of-origin labeling, thereby identifying the most likely outcomes. Profits motivate firms to innovate and introduce thousands of new food products each year to satisfy consumers' demand. Yet, ...
AER-828, November 07, 2003
This report examines the conceptual relationships between food safety and international trade and analyzes empirical examples from the meat and poultry, produce, food and animal feed crop, and seafood sectors.
AER-825, September 23, 2003
Retail consolidation, technological change in production and marketing, and growing consumer demand for produce have altered the traditional market relationships between producers, wholesalers, and retailers. Increasingly, produce suppliers are asked to provide additional marketing services and ince...
WAOB-2003-1, February 10, 2003
This report provides long-run (10-year) baseline projections for the agricultural sector through 2012. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices.
AER-820, February 03, 2003
This report analyzes how U.S. consumption of food commodities is projected to rise through 2020. The study uses date from USDA's food intake survey to project the consumption, through 2020, of 25 food groups and 22 commodity groups.
AIB-778, November 14, 2002
The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (2002 Farm Act), which governs agricultural programs through 2007, was signed into law in May 2002. This report presents an initial evaluation of the new legislation's effects on agricultural commodity markets, based on sectorwide model simulations ...
AIB-775, April 01, 2002
Assessment of issues that will affect China's future trends in consumption, production, import, and export of food and agricultural commodities. A series of 13 articles cover China's food consumption, marketing, international trade, agricultural policy, transportation infrastructure, regional divers...
WAOB-2002-1, February 21, 2002
This report provides long-run (10-year) baseline projections for the agricultural sector through 2011. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices.
WRS-013, December 28, 2001
This report identifies key factors underlying the agricultural productivity growth and enhanced international competitiveness of Brazil and Argentina in the past decade. Economic and policy reforms, infrastructure development, and enhanced use of agricultural inputs that drove output growth during t...
WRS-01-1, May 30, 2001
Higher income, urbanization, other demographic shifts, improved transportation, and consumer perceptions regarding quality and safety are changing global food consumption patterns. Shifts in food consumption have led to increased trade and changes in the composition of world agricultural trade. Give...
AIB-769, May 25, 2001
This report describes a farm typology developed by the Economic Research Service (ERS), which categorizes farms into more homogeneous groups than classifications based on sales volume alone, producing a more effective policy development tool. The typology is used to describe U.S. farm structure.
AER-801, April 02, 2001
Over the next several years, crop prices are projected to be below to slightly above commodity loan rates. As a result, marketing loan benefits to farmers, in the form of loan deficiency payments and marketing loan gains from the commodity loan program, are likely to continue to be sizeable. The lev...
AIB-761, February 28, 2001
Over the past 125 years, a complex system of both public and private pricing institutions has evolved to deal with milk production, assembly, and distribution. The pricing of milk in the United States is part market-determined, and part publicly administered through a wide variety of pricing regulat...
WAOB-2001-1, February 22, 2001
This report provides long-run (10-year) baseline projections for the agricultural sector through 2010. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices.
AER-789, November 03, 2000
Public health policies intended to reduce the incidence of smoking-related disease adversely affect thousands of tobacco farmers, manufacturers, and other businesses that produce, distribute, and sell tobacco products. This report assesses the likely impacts of declining tobacco demand, and identifi...
AGES-001E, January 20, 2000
Industrial hemp has been the focus of official interest in several States. However, hemp and marijuana are different varieties of Cannabis sativa, which is classified as a controlled substance in the United States. With Canada now allowing hemp production, questions have been raised about the demand...
WAOB-98-1, February 02, 1998
This report provides long-run baseline projections for the agricultural sector through 2007. Projections cover agricultural commodities, agricultural trade, and aggregate indicators of the sector, such as farm income and food prices. The baseline assumes no shocks and is based on specific assumption...
WAOB-97-1, April 23, 1997
This report provides long-run baseline projections for the agricultural sector through 2005 that incorporate provisions of the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (1996 Farm Act). The baseline assumes that the new farm legislation remains in effect through 2005. Projections cover ...
AIB-498, April 01, 1986
The Food Security Act of 1985 (P.L. 99-198) establishes a comprehensive framework within which the Secretary of Agriculture will administer agriculture and food programs from 1986 through 1990. This report describes the Act's provisions for dairy, wool and mohair, wheat, feed grains, cotton, rice, p...

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