Sandra (Sandy) Hoffmann is a senior economist with the Food
Economics Division. Her research focuses on food safety, valuation
of the health benefits of public policies, and integration of
economic analysis and risk assessment. She is recognized for her
research on the attribution of foodborne illness to its food
sources and on children's environmental health. Sandy served on the
National Academy of Sciences (NAS) committee on the Effectiveness
of National Biosurveillance Systems. She has advised the
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and
the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on valuation of
children's benefits from environmental health programs.
- Food Source Attribution--Estimating the relationship
between consumption of different foods and foodborne illness, using
FoodNet and HomeScan time series data.
- Lead and Children's Health--Parental roles in family
decision-making and estimation of parental willingness to pay to
prevent children's loss of IQ or increased risk of attention
- Estimation of Cost of Foodborne Illness.
Prior to joining ERS in 2010, Sandy was a Research Fellow at
Resources for the Future (2000-2010) and a faculty member at the
University of Wisconsin-Madison (1999-2000). She also practiced
pesticide and chemical manufacture regulatory law (1986-1989) and
served with the U.S. Peace Corps in rural Chile (1980-1982).
Sandy holds a Ph.D. from the Department of Agricultural and
Resource Economics, University of California, Berkeley and an M.A.
in agricultural economics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
She also received a J.D. from the University of Michigan Law School
and her B.S. from Iowa State University.
Sandy is a member of the Agriculture and Applied Economics
Association (AAEA), the Association of Environmental and Resource
Economists (AERE), the Society for Risk Analysis (SRA), and the
International Association for Food Protection (UAFP).
Hoffmann, Sandra. "U.S. Food Safety Policy Enters a
New Era," USDA, ERS,Amber Waves 9(4):24-29, December 2011.
Hoffmann, Sandra. "Overcoming Barriers to Integrating Economic
Analysis into Risk Assessment,"Risk Analysis31(9): 1345-1355,
Hoffmann, Sandra. "Food Safety Policy and Economics," in Jayson
Lusk, Jutta Rossen, and Jayson Shogren (eds.),Oxford Handbook of
Consumer Economics, Oxford University Press, 2011.
World Bank.Air pollution in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
report(contributing author), 2011.
Hoffmann, Sandra and Bill Harder. "Food Safety and Risk
Governance in Globalized Markets",Health Matrix: Journal of
Law-Medicine20: 5-54, 2010.
Hoffmann, Sandra. "Ensuring Food Safety around the Globe: The
Many Roles of Risk Analysis from Risk Ranking to Microbial Risk
Assessment,"Risk Analysis30 (5): 711-714 and 711-871, 2010.
Hoffmann, Sandra (editor). 2010. "Risk Analysis and Food
Safety." Special Issue of Risk Analysis. 30(5): 711-871.
Hoffmann, Sandra and Neal Hooker. "Emerging Issues in Food
Safety,"Choices24 (2): 4-5, 2009.
Hoffman, Sandra. "Knowing Which Foods Are Making Us
Sick,"Choices24 (2): 6-10, 2009.
National Research Council, Committee on Effectiveness of
National Biosurveillance Systems: BioWatch and the Public Health
System.BioWatch and Public Health Surveillance: Evaluating Systems
for Early Detection of Biological Threats, National Academies
Press, Washington, D.C., 2009.
Hoffmann, Sandra. "Since Children Are Not Little
Adults-Socially-What's an Environmental Economist to Do?"Duke
Environmental Law and Policy Forum17: 209-232, 2007.
Hoffmann, Sandra, Paul Fischbeck, Alan Krupnick, and Michael
McWilliams. "Elicitation from Large, Heterogeneous Expert Panels:
Using Multiple Uncertainty Measures to Characterize Information
Quality for Decision Analysis,"Decision Analysis4(2): 91-109,
Hoffmann, Sandra, Paul Fischbeck, Alan Krupnick, and Michael
McWilliams. "Using Expert Elicitation to Link Foodborne Illnesses
in the U.S. to Food,"Journal of Food Protection70(5): 1220-11229,
World Bank.Cost of Pollution in China: Economic Estimates of
Physical Damages(contributing author), 2007.
Goodhue, Rachael E. and Sandra Hoffmann. "Reading the Fine Print
in Agricultural Contracts: Conventional Contract Clauses, Risks and
Returns,"American Journal of Agricultural Economics88(5):
Hoffmann, Sandra, James Boyd, and Eleanor McCormick. "Taxing
Nutrient Loads,"Journal of Soil and Water Conservation61(5):
Hoffmann, Sandra, Alan Krupnick and Wictor Adamowicz.
"Uncertainty in Valuing Benefits to Children from Environmental
Health Policy," inEconomic Valuation of Environmental Health Risks
to Children, OECD Publishing, Paris, France, 2006.
Dharmapala, Dhammika, and Sandra Hoffmann. "Bilateral Accidents
with Intrinsically Interdependent Costs of Precaution,"Journal of
Legal Studies34(1): 239-272, 2005.
Hoffmann, Sandra and Michael Taylor (eds.).Toward Safer Food:
Perspectives on Risk and Priority Setting, Resources for the Future
Press, Washington, D.C., 2005.
Hoffmann, Sandra. "Risk-Based Decision-making for Food Safety:
Lessons from Environmental Policy," inToward Safer Food:
Perspectives on Risk and Priority Setting, Sandra Hoffmann and
Michael Taylor (eds.), Resources for the Future Press, Washington,
Berck, Peter, Chris Costello, Louise Fortmann and Sandra
Hoffmann. "Poverty and Employment in Forest-dependent
Counties,"Forest Science49(5): 1-15, 2003.
Fischer, Carolyn, Sandra Hoffmann, and Yutaka Yoshino.
"Multilateral Trade Agreements and Market-Based Environmental
Policies," inCritical Issues in International Environmental
Taxation: International and Comparative Perspectives," Janet Milne,
Kurt Deketelaere, Larry Kreiser, Hope Ashiabor (eds.), Richmond Law
and Tax Ltd., Richmond, UK, 2003.
Berck, Peter and Sandra Hoffmann. "Assessing the Employment
Impacts of Environmental Policy,"Environmental and Resource
Economics22: 133-56, 2002.
Taylor, Michael and Sandra Hoffmann. "Redesigning Food
Safety,"Issues in Science and Technology17(4): 26-30, 2001.
Hoffmann, Sandra, Sherman Robinson, and Shankar Subramanian.
"Defense Cuts and the California Recession: Computable General
Equilibrium Models and Interstate Factor Mobility,"Journal of
Regional Science36(4): 571-95, 1996.