Definitions and Related Resources
The detailed definition of agricultural R&D can be found in
the Current Research Information Systems Manual of
Classification for Agricultural and Forestry Research, Education,
and Extension. Essentially, public agricultural R&D
focuses on the plants and animals used in agricultural production;
the natural resources that are used or affected by agriculture
production; production systems and their support; food and non-food
products; human nutrition, well-being, and food safety; families
and community systems; economics, marketing and policy; and
research administration. Private R&D includes many of the same
research topics, specifically plant breeding, agricultural
chemicals, farm machinery, fertilizers, animal health, animal
breeding, animal nutrition, and food and kindred products. The
National Science Foundation data are defined by agency, in this
case, USDA's research agencies. Both NSF and CRIS exclude outlays
on "R&D plant," or expenditures on long-lived capital
Deflator: A price index that accounts for inflation in the cost of
research inputs. The costs of conducting research have risen faster
than the general rate of inflation.
Private Sector Agricultural R&D Funding: Agricultural
R&D funding of non-public institutions, generally private
firms. (Private funding of research at public institutions is
included under public sector R&D).
Public Sector Agricultural R&D Funding: Agricultural R&D
funding that flows through or to a public institution, whether at
the federal or State level.
See also the topic on Agricultural Science Policy
for more information on ERS research in this area.