This data set provides estimates of productivity growth in the U.S. farm sector for 1948-2013, and estimates of the growth and relative levels of productivity across U.S. States for 1960-2004.
Note that the national data series has been revised (see Findings, Documentation, and Methods for details), and updates of the State-level statistics are suspended in light of reduced ERS resources and the discontinuance of key source data series. The quality of the national statistics is preserved.
It is widely agreed that increased productivity is the main contributor to economic growth in U.S. agriculture. The level of U.S. farm output was about 2.7 times its 1948 level in 2013, growing at an average annual rate of 1.52 percent. Aggregate input use increased at a modest 0.05 percent annually in the same period, so the positive growth in farm sector output was very substantially due to productivity growth, which increased at an average 1.47 percent per year. But what exactly is productivity?
Single-factor measures of productivity, such as corn production per acre (yield or land productivity) or per hour of labor (labor productivity), have been used for many years because the underlying data are often easily available. While useful, such measures can also mislead. For example, yields could increase simply because farmers are adding more of other inputs, such as chemicals, labor, or machinery, to their land base. USDA produces measures of total factor productivity (TFP), taking account of the use of all inputs to the production process.
Specifically, annual productivity growth is the difference between growth of agricultural output and the growth of all inputs taken together (methods for combining inputs are described in Findings, Documentation, and Methods). Productivity, therefore, measures changes in the efficiency with which inputs are transformed into outputs. USDA also produces State-level productivity measures (annual growth rates as well as cross-State differences in levels) of productivity, or differences in output per unit of combined inputs. Input measures are adjusted for changes in their quality, such as improvements in the efficacy of chemicals and seeds, changes in the demographics of the farm workforce, or innovations in machinery design. As a result, agricultural productivity is driven by innovations in onfarm tasks, changes in the organization and structure of the farm sector, and research aimed at improvements in farm production. In the short-term, measured agricultural productivity can also be affected by random events like weather.
|National Tables, 1948-2013||Back to top|
|Table 1—Indices of farm output, input, and total factor productivity for the United States, 1948-2013. Includes price indices and implicit quantities of farm outputs and inputs (see second tab in workbook), Table1a.||12/14/2015||11/30/2017|
|Table 2—Sources of growth in the U.S. farm sector (average annual rates), 1948-2013. Includes decomposition into quantity and quality of inputs.||12/14/2015||11/30/2017|
|CSV Format of National Data||Back to top|
|Table 1—Indices of farm output, input, and total factor productivity for the United States, 1948-2013||12/14/2015||11/30/2017|
|Table 1a—Price indices and implicit quantities of farm outputs and inputs, 1948-2013||12/14/2015||11/30/2017|
|State-Level Tables, Relative Level Indices and Growth, 1960-2004—Outputs||Back to top|
|Table 3—Total farm output by State||5/5/2010|
|Table 4—Crop output||5/5/2010|
|Table 5—Livestock output ||5/5/2010|
|Table 6—Other farm-related output ||5/5/2010|
|State-Level Tables, Relative Level Indices and Growth, 1960-2004—Inputs||Back to top|
|Table 7—Total farm input by State||5/5/2010|
|Table 8—Capital input (excluding land) ||5/5/2010|
|Table 9—Land input||5/5/2010|
|Table 10—Total labor input ||5/5/2010|
|Table 11—Hired labor||5/5/2010|
|Table 12— Self-employed and unpaid family labor ||5/5/2010|
|Table 13—Total intermediate input ||5/5/2010|
|Table 14—Energy input ||5/5/2010|
|Table 15—Agricultural chemical input ||5/5/2010|
|Table 16—Pesticide consumption||5/5/2010|
|Table 17—Fertilizer consumption||5/5/2010|
|Table 18—Other intermediate inputs||5/5/2010|
|State-Level Tables, Relative Level Indices and Growth, 1960-2004—Total Factor Productivity||Back to top|
|Table 19—Indices of total factor productivity by State||5/5/2010|
|State Ranking Tables ||Back to top|
|Table 20—States ranked by level and growth of farm output ||5/5/2010|
|Table 21—States ranked by level and growth of inputs ||5/5/2010|
|Table 22—States ranked by level and growth of productivity ||5/5/2010|
|State-Level Tables, Price Indices and Implicit Quantities of Farm Outputs and Inputs by State, 1960-2004||Back to top|
|Table 23. Price indices and implicit quantities of farm outputs and inputs by State, 1960-2004||9/27/2013|